Presentation on theme: "Do-Now Use the spaces provided on the blackboard to list the major details, arguments, viewpoints, etc. represented in your group’s section of the prohibition."— Presentation transcript:
Do-Now Use the spaces provided on the blackboard to list the major details, arguments, viewpoints, etc. represented in your group’s section of the prohibition reading. Talk with your group about how you’d like to explain the reading to the class. Thursday December 4 th Agenda Do-Now Prohibition discussion Notes on Prohibition Explain and assign “Heroes” for cereal boxes Homework Begin work on your “Heroes” cereal box Due: Wednesday December 10 th
Post-War Social Change Society in the 1920’s Prohibition of Alcohol Religious Tension Rises
The 1920’s, Prohibition A simple solution to a complex problem. 1. 1. Why did many Americans believe Prohibition was necessary? What goals did they have? 2. 2. What were the results (intended or unintended) of the Prohibition of alcohol? 3.Was Prohibition of Alcohol in the 1920’s successful? 4. 4. In what way could you say that the goals of prohibition “backfired”? 5. 5. Why did so many Americans look for cultural icons who represented good or “heros” during this time period?
“As an attempt to restore morality, Prohibition probably produced the opposite effect. The willingness to break the law contributed to a wider decline in moral standards.”
Prohibition’s main goals: –Eliminate drunkenness Lessen domestic abuse, conflict –Get rid of saloons Sites of prostitution, gambling, and other vices –Prevent absenteeism & problems at work Missing work, and on-the-job accidents Prohibition of Alcohol The 18 th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution Became the law of the land January 16 th, 1920. Largely Ignored by the majority of Americans.
Enforcing Prohibition: –Volstead Act (1919) Passed by Congress to systematically enforce –Widely Ignored Demographics: –Kansas, 95% obeyed –New York, 5% obeyed Enhanced the rural/urban morality contrast Prohibition of Alcohol The 18 th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
Bootlegging –Manufacture, sale, or transport of beer, liquor, wine, etc. is outlawed –A new type of criminal is born –Operated stills, smuggled overland or sea Speakeasies –Illicit saloons where smuggled booze was distributed After Prohibition: 700 speakeasies and 4,000 bootleggers in Washington D.C. Before Prohibition: Only 300 licensed saloons Violating Prohibition The 18 th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
Organized Crime –Bootlegging/Speakeasies required large networks Gang wars & murder –Gangsters expanded their bootlegging empires –Overlapping gangs clashed, murderous results –“Rackets” Paid off local police to “look the other way” Forced local business to pay for “protection” –Unpaid business suffered terrorism What happened to protecting morality!?! Violating Prohibition The 18 th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
Al Capone –“Scarface,” most notorious gangster –Over $60 million per year bootlegging alone –Incredibly powerful Politicians, judges The F.B.I is born –J.Edgar Hoover –Dedicated, independent force against Org. Crime STILL couldn’t trap Capone –Finally jailed for tax evasion! Violating Prohibition The 18 th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
Prohibition of Alcohol The 18 th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution Violations of Prohibition led Congress to hear testimony to whether the 18 th amendment should be repealed. In Favor of Repeal “I will concede that the saloon was odious [offensive], but now we have delicatessen stores, pool rooms, drug stores, millinery shops, private parlors, and 57 other varieties of speakeasies selling liquor and flourishing.” -- Representative LaGuardia of NY, 1926 Against Repeal Instead of lowering our standards, we urge that the law be strengthened… the closing of the open saloon… has resulted in better national health; children are born under better conditions, homes are better, and the mother is delivered from the fear of a drunken husband. --Ella A. Boole, president of the NWCTU, 1926
Fundamentalists in conflicts over: Emerging science and technology War and widespread crime – –Began to question existence/involvement of God Scholars who criticized the bible – –Historically inaccurate? Written by humans? Contradictory? Evolution – –The Scopes Trial – –Fundamentalism v. Science Other Issues of Morality Religious Tension Comes to the Forefront
Fundamentalism Religious traditionalists Christian ideas about Jesus Argued God inspired the Bible – –Therefore it cannot hold contradictions or errors Favored literal interpretation of the bible Other Issues of Morality Religious Tension Comes to the Forefront
Famous Fundamentalists Billy Sunday – –Former professional baseball player – –Anti-Alcohol – –Led WILDLY POPULAR Religious Revival meetings Sister Aimee – –Owned radio station – –Used public broadcasts to spread her revival meetings – –Broadened her ministry Other Issues of Morality Religious Tension Comes to the Forefront
The Scopes Trial Evolution – –Theory that human beings and all other living species developed over time from simpler life forms – –Deeply disturbed fundamentalists – –Contradicts the history of “Creation” 1925, TN bans teaching evolution in school – –Science teacher John T. Scopes challenges constitutionality Other Issues of Morality Religious Tension Comes to the Forefront
The Scopes Trial (continued) William Jennings Bryan v. Clarence Darrow – –Outspoken fundamentalist lawyer v. Passionate supporter of free speech (New) Mass media made the trial wildly popular Other Issues of Morality Religious Tension Comes to the Forefront