2Authors and PoetsRomanticism Pioneers – Washington Irving and William C. BryantFireside Poets – Henry W. Longfellow, Oliver W. Holmes, John G. Whittier, and James R. LowellTranscendentalists – Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David ThoreauDark Romantics – Nathaniel Hawthorne and Edgar Allan PoeNew Poetic Forms – Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson
3Historical Context 1800-1870 = time of growth and westward expansion The move west brought new technologies in transportation, industry, and communication:Canals and railroadsFactories and advanced farming equipmentTelegraph and Morse code
4Historical ContextThe move west and new technology also spurred troublesome changes:Factories brought fierce competition = child labor and unsafe working conditionsWomen’s rights were severely hampered and efforts to change this came to the forefrontOpposition to slavery began to grow and gain a voice in abolitionists, eventually dividing the nation in two
5What is Romanticism?A literary and artistic movement that placed an emphasis on imagination, emotion, nature, and individuality.Elevated the imagination over reason and intuition over facts.Intense interest and reverence in nature.
6Who are the Romantics?Before 1800 American writers were not widely-read, and the Romantics changed this.These writers define the American voice – personal and bold.These writers define the primary theme of American writing: the quest of the individual to define himself.
7Who are the Romantics? Washington Irving “Fireside Poets”Washington IrvingWilliam Cullen Bryant “The Pioneers’Henry W. LongfellowOliver W. HolmesJames R. LowellJohn G. Whittier
8Who are the Romantics? Washington Irving 1st American writer to achieve international reputationTravel through Europe and a fascination with its folklore lead Irving to create his two most famous stories:“The Legend of Sleepy Hollow”“Rip Van Winkle”Wrote “The Devil and Tom Walker” at the same time Puritan beliefs were being replaced by materialism and the desire for personal gain.
9Who are the Romantics? William C. Bryant Wrote “Thanatopsis” Helped establish Romantic Movement in AmericaKnown as Father of American poetry
10Who are the Fireside Poets? Henry W. LongfellowFirst American poet to reach a wide audience and create a national interest in poetry – most popularWrote “Paul Revere’s Ride”James R. LowellRemembered for nature poetryWrote “The First Snowfall”Oliver W. HolmesWrote “Old Ironsides”PhysicianJohn G. WhittierWrote “Snowbound”
11Fireside Poets Lasting Impact Longfellow remained the most popular American poet for decades.They took on causes in their poetry, such as the abolition of slavery, which brought the issues to the forefront in an agreeable way.Through their scholarship and editorial efforts, they paved the way for later Romantic writers like Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Walt Whitman.
12What is Dark Romanticism? Same attributes of Romanticism, but tends to accent the fantastic aspects of human experience more.Characterized as part of the literary genre known as: Gothic Literature
13Gothic Style Characteristics Setting is in bleak or remote places.Plot involves morbid or violent incidents.Characters are in psychological and/or physical torment.A supernatural or otherworldly element is often present.
14Who are the Dark Romantics? Edgar Allan PoeWrote “The Raven”Widely accepted as the inventor of the detective story.Known as an eccentric writer – his dark and dismal life probably had something to do with it.Herman MelvilleWrote Moby-Dick which is widely regarded as one of the finest novels in all of American Literature.Nathaniel HawthorneBelieved evil was a dominant force in the world.Wrote The Scarlet Letter and “The Minister’s Black Veil”