Presentation on theme: "Renaissance in Germany In the early 16th century German art moved to the forefront of northern Europe culture. There were artists of great originality,"— Presentation transcript:
Renaissance in Germany In the early 16th century German art moved to the forefront of northern Europe culture. There were artists of great originality, imagination and strong individual character. Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) Lucas Cranach (1472-1553) Matthias Grunewald (1480-1528) Hans Holbein (1497-1543)
Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) Self-portrait Oil on wood 20 x16” Durer was the leading artist of German society. Fascinated by Classical ideas, he had travelled to Italy to broaden his knowledge. He was a strong believer in close observation of nature, and allied himself to the scientific studies of Leonardo da Vinci. Durer’s artwork is highly detailed and is distinguished by a use of precise line.
Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) “Young Hare” Watercolor on Paper 10 x 9” 1502
Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) Self-portrait Oil on wood
Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) “Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse” 10 x 8” Woodcut print on paper Durer was one of the first artists in the Western world to use woodcut as a major art medium. His style was precise, and highly detailed, requiring great technical skill. In 1498 he finished a series of 15 woodcuts illustrating events from the Apocalypse section of the Bible. Most printmakers use single lines; Durer massed fine lines together to produce gray- value areas which imply spatial depth.
Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) Christ Descending the Cross Woodcut Print on Paper
Melancholia I (1514) by German Renaissance artist Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) is a large print full of complex symbolism. One of the four bodily humors in medieval thought, melancholy was associated with insanity as well as artistic prowess. In Dürer's work on paper, instruments of geometry, an exacting branch of mathematics in which the artist excelled, surround a downtrodden winged personification of the humor, perhaps a visual reference by the master to his own inability to realize perfection in design.
Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) “The Four Apostles” Oil on wood each 85 x 30” 1526 This was painted towards the end of Durer’s life. He donated the two panels to the city of Nuremberg, to be hung in city hall.
Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) Self-portrait Oil on wood
Lucas Cranach (1472-1553) “The Judgement of Paris” Oil on wood Cranach painted many nudes of Adam, Eve, and various gods from ancient mythology. However, he painted them as German folk posed in rugged outdoor settings rather than as Classic figures of Greek and Roman times. The light is not consistent: the landscape in this picture was rendered with natural light, but the human figures are illuminated by artificial, theatrical lighting unrelated to the fading sun in the distance. Their strange anatomy is Mannerist, not realistic.
Lucas Cranach (1472-1553) “The Judgement of Paris” Oil on wood
Lucas Cranach (1472-1553) “Adam and Eve” Oil on wood
Lucas Cranach (1472-1553) “Christ Crowned with Thorns” Oil on panel, 1510 AA After the whipping ordered by the Roman governor Pilate, soldiers mocked Jesus because of his nickname 'King of the Jews'. He was stripped naked and then dressed in a purple gown. They put a crown made out of thorn branches on his head. According to the Gospel of John, this is how Jesus was presented to the people ("Behold the man!"). Lucas Cranach shows the face of a suffering man who has accepted his fate. A few lines of blood show that the thorns stuck deep into the skin.
Lucas Cranach (1472-1553) “Genesis- The Garden of God” Oil on wood Although this painting is filled with fine detail, it is not rendered in a realistic manner; objects are stylized and the light is not naturalistic.
Matthias Grunewald (1480-1528) This artist was highly original, expressive and unique. His emotionally charged artwork was largely forgotten until modern times. Grunewald worked on church commissions and as court painter in Germany.
Matthias Grunewald (1480-1528) Isenheim Altarpiece (closed) Oil on wood 8’ x 10’ The altar is composed of a carved wooden shrine with two pairs of movable panels, one directly behind the other. The panels show various scenes in the life of Jesus...
Matthias Grunewald (1480-1528) Isenheim Altarpiece (closed) Oil on wood 8’ x 10’ This crucifixion scene shows intense suffering and anguish. Christ has been tortured and his body is straining in agony; his fingers are particularly expressive.
Matthias Grunewald (1480-1528) Isenheim Altarpiece (open) When the outer wings are opened the mood changes dramatically from disaster to triumph. The three scenes—the Annunciation, the Angel Concert and the Resurrection celebrate jubilant events in the story of Jesus Christ.
Matthias Grunewald (1480-1528) Isenheim Altarpiece detail (open) Oil on wood 1510-1515 Christ, in a blazing circle of light so intense that it dissolves his form, rises from the grave like a great flame in the starlit heavens. Notice the effective use of dramatically contrasting values of dark and light. The light is not naturalistic, and the forms suggest a flowing motion.
Matthias Grunewald (1480-1528) Isenheim Altarpiece detail (open) Oil on wood 1510-1515 The artist’s colors are richly iridescent, and the figures seem to glow.
Matthias Grunewald (1480-1528) Isenheim Altarpiece The Temptation of St. Anthony Oil on wood 1510-1515 Although the artist was in sympathy with the Christian reforms of Martin Luther, who frowned upon religious images as “idolatrous,” he depended on Catholic patronage.
Matthia Grunewald (1480-1528) “Meeting of St. Erasmus and St. Maurice” Oil on wood 1517-1523
Hans Holbein (1497-1543) Self-portrait, oil on wood Holbein was a great portrait painter. He was born in Germany, spent time in Switzerland, and became court painter to England’s Henry VIII in the mid-1520s. He painted many portraits of royalty and important citizens.
Hans Holbein (1497-1543) “Sir Thomas More” Oil on wood 30 x 24” 1527 The portrait of this author and statesman includes a remarkable rendering of fur, velvet and jewelry. The modeling of the facial features is very exact.
Hans Holbein (1497-1543) “Sir Thomas More” Oil on wood 30 x 24” 1527 The modeling of the facial features is very exact, including such details as beard stubble and flesh wrinkles. Sir Thomas More, a determined and uncompromising individual, eventually clashed with King Henry VIII and was beheaded.
Hans Holbein (1497- 1543) “Henry VIII” Oil on wood This portrait uses a rigid frontality, showing the king’s powerful physical presence and suggesting his ruthless command. All the details are rendered with great clarity and precision.
Hans Holbein (1497-1543) “The Ambassadors” Oil on wood 6’8”x 6’10” The array of objects in this picture are a catalog of the two men’s interests; eye glass, lute, celestial globe, Lutheran hymnbook, compasses, flutes, sundial and books. This can be seen in detail on the next slide... The most astounding feature is the shape that seems to grow out of the lower left hand corner of the foreground. When viewed from below and the side, it appears to be a human skull. Perhaps the painting was intended to hang over a doorway so when viewers looked up they saw a skull — a frightening reminder of human mortality.
Hans Holbein (1497-1543) “The Ambassadors” Oil on wood 6’8”x 6’10” Detail: The array of objects in this picture are a catalog of the two men’s interests; eye glass, lute, celestial globe, Lutheran hymnbook, compasses, flutes, sundial and books.
Hans Holbein (1497-1543) “Christina of Denmark” Oil on wood 70 x 32” In later works Holbein embraced greater pictorial simplicity. Here he kept the focus on the portrait subject, eliminating distracting props. Nevertheless, the figure is rendered with great detail and precision.
Hans Holbein (1497-1543) “Lady with a Squirrel” Oil on wood
Hans Holbein (1497-1543) Portrait of Erasmus Oil on wood
Hans Holbein (1497-1543) Dance of Death Woodcuts
Hans Holbein (1497-1543) Dance of Death Woodcut