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BY: MICHAL REMER Dyslexia Quick Facts: 15-20 % of people affected Dyslexia does not discriminate Dyslexia is mostly hereditary.

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Presentation on theme: "BY: MICHAL REMER Dyslexia Quick Facts: 15-20 % of people affected Dyslexia does not discriminate Dyslexia is mostly hereditary."— Presentation transcript:

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2 BY: MICHAL REMER Dyslexia

3 Quick Facts: % of people affected Dyslexia does not discriminate Dyslexia is mostly hereditary

4 Quick Facts: Difficulty with reading, writing and other language based tasks Reading/seeing words backwards is a common misconception

5 Here is a small cartoon to begin illustrating the idea: So What is Dyslexia?

6 The Dyslexia Paradox

7

8

9 A Precise Definition: DIVIDED INTO 5 PARTS

10 Dyslexia...

11 1. is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin.

12 This means that the disability originates in the brain. 1. is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin.

13 2. Difficulties associated with Dyslexia typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language.

14 This means a person with dyslexia typically has an impairment in the area of their brain that is responsible for breaking apart and processing the basic structure of words (phonemes). 2. Difficulties associated with Dyslexia typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language.

15 3. Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities.

16 This means that people with dyslexia often have difficulty identifying real words and/or doing so in a fluent (effortless) manner. 3. Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities.

17 They have trouble spelling words and decoding (that is, breaking apart/ pronouncing) the ones they are not familiar with. 3. Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities.

18 This includes nonsense words – words that are phonetically “decodable” but not part of the lexicon. 3. Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities.

19 4. The phonological deficits that Dyslexics face are often unexpected in relation to their other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction.

20 This means that their impairment has no relation to their overall intelligence or their ability to respond well to effective classroom instruction. In fact, most people with dyslexia have average to above average intelligence. 4. The phonological deficits that Dyslexics face are often unexpected in relation to their other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction.

21 The conventional nature of classroom instruction today though, does not necessarily imply effective instruction for dyslexic students – and this is one of the reasons why dyslexia is considered a learning disability 4. The phonological deficits that Dyslexics face are often unexpected in relation to their other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction.

22 5. Secondary consequences of Dyslexia may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.

23 3 Types of Dyslexia

24 Type: Example: 3 Types of Dyslexia

25 Type: Example: Dysnemkinesia (motor dyslexia)  Difficulty remembering how to do the movements needed for writing. 3 Types of Dyslexia

26 Type: Example: Dysnemkinesia (motor dyslexia)  Difficulty remembering how to do the movements needed for writing. Difficulties with symbol orientations  Confusion between  b/d/p/q/ Transposing words (written/writing) and syllables (speech)  Form/from, angle/angel, clam/calm 3 Types of Dyslexia

27 Type: Example: Dysnemkinesia (motor dyslexia)  Difficulty remembering how to do the movements needed for writing. Difficulties with symbol orientations  Confusion between  b/d/p/q/ Transposing words (written/writing) and syllables (speech)  Form/from, angle/angel, clam/calm 3 Types of Dyslexia

28 Type: Example: Dysnemkinesia (motor dyslexia)  Difficulty remembering how to do the movements needed for writing. Difficulties with symbol orientations  Confusion between  b/d/p/q Transposing words (written/writing) and syllables (speech)  Form/from, angle/angel, clam/calm Letter reversals  Saw/was, reed/deer (sequential) Ƨ /S, Я/R, C/ ɔ, ∃ / E, µ/u, N/ И (mirror writing) 3 Types of Dyslexia

29 Type: Example: Dysnemkinesia (motor dyslexia)  Difficulty remembering how to do the movements needed for writing. Difficulties with symbol orientations  Confusion between  b/d/p/q Transposing words (written/writing) and syllables (speech)  Form/from, angle/angel, clam/calm Letter reversals  Saw/was, reed/deer (sequential) Ƨ /S, Я/R, C/ ɔ, ∃ / E, µ/u, N/ И (mirror writing) Spatial difficulties  Left/right, directions Poor sight recognition  Trouble building up sight vocabulary  Relies on reading and spelling phonetically 3 Types of Dyslexia

30 Type: Example: Dysphonesia (auditory dyslexia)  Difficulty with phonological component of language. 3 Types of Dyslexia

31 Reader without Dysphonesia

32 Brain Comparison

33 Brain without Dysphonesia

34 Type: Example: Dysphonesia (auditory dyslexia)  Difficulty with phonological component of language. Cannot decode words phonetically 3 Types of Dyslexia

35 Reader with Dysphonesia

36 Brain with Dysphonesia

37 Dysphonesia: Example: Dysphonesia (auditory dyslexia)  Difficulty with phonological component of language. Cannot decode words phonetically  Difficulty identifying/make sense of novel or unfamiliar words 3 Types of Dyslexia

38 Dysphonesia: Example: Dysphonesia (auditory dyslexia)  Difficulty with phonological component of language. Cannot decode words phonetically  Difficulty identifying/make sense of novel or unfamiliar words  Learns the word deal, but gets mixed up with new word seal and can’t read the word dealing. 3 Types of Dyslexia

39 Dysphonesia: Example: Dysphonesia (auditory dyslexia)  Difficulty with phonological component of language. Cannot decode words phonetically  Difficulty identifying/make sense of novel or unfamiliar words  Learns the word deal, but gets mixed up with new word seal and can’t read the word dealing. Student tends to rely on memory 3 Types of Dyslexia

40 Dysphonesia: Example: Dys-phon-esia (auditory dyslexia)  Difficulty with phonological component of language. Cannot decode words phonetically  Difficulty identifying/make sense of novel or unfamiliar words  Learns the word deal, but gets mixed up with new word seal and can’t read the word dealing. Student tends to rely on memory  Chaotic spelling  Confusion between similar looking letters Aminal/animal 3 Types of Dyslexia

41 Dysphonesia: Example: Dysphonesia (auditory dyslexia)  Difficulty with phonological component of language. Cannot decode words phonetically  Difficulty identifying/make sense of novel or unfamiliar words  Learns the word deal, but gets mixed up with new word seal and can’t read the word dealing. Student tends to rely on memory  Chaotic spelling  Confusion between similar looking letters Aminal/animal  Confusion between similar words 3 Types of Dyslexia

42 Dysphonesia: Example: Dysphonesia (auditory dyslexia)  Difficulty with phonological component of language. Cannot decode words phonetically  Difficulty identifying/make sense of novel or unfamiliar words  Learns the word deal, but gets mixed up with new word seal and can’t read the word dealing. Student tends to rely on memory  Chaotic spelling  Confusion between similar looking letters Aminal/animal  Confusion between similar words  Volcano/tornado. 3 Types of Dyslexia

43 Type: Example: Dyseidesia (visual dyslexia)  Difficulty with whole word recognition and visual analysis, particularly with visual processing. 3 Types of Dyslexia

44 Type: Example: Dyseidesia (visual dyslexia)  Difficulty with whole word recognition and visual analysis, particularly with visual processing. Poor visual memory  Relies on spelling and decoding words phonetically  Reading is laborious Frequent spelling errors Writes rede /ready, enuf /enough Increased decoding errors Reads log instead of laugh Difficulty differentiating b/w visual patterns, recalling things in sequential order, telling things apart from large r visual field Where’s Waldo Cluttered blackboard 3 Types of Dyslexia

45 Type: Example: Dyseidesia (visual dyslexia)  Difficulty with whole word recognition and visual analysis, particularly with visual processing. Poor visual memory  Relies on spelling and decoding words phonetically  Reading is laborious Frequent spelling errors  Writes rede /ready, enuf /enough Increased decoding errors Reads log instead of laugh Difficulty differentiating b/w visual patterns, recalling things in sequential order, telling things apart from large r visual field Where’s Waldo Cluttered blackboard 3 Types of Dyslexia

46 Type: Example: Dyseidesia (visual dyslexia)  Difficulty with whole word recognition and visual analysis, particularly with visual processing. Poor visual memory  Relies on spelling and decoding words phonetically  Reading is laborious Frequent spelling errors  Writes rede /ready, enuf /enough Increased decoding errors  Reads log instead of laugh Difficulty differentiating b/w visual patterns, recalling things in sequential order, telling things apart from large r visual field Where’s Waldo Cluttered blackboard 3 Types of Dyslexia

47 Type: Example: Dyseidesia (visual dyslexia)  Difficulty with whole word recognition and visual analysis, particularly with visual processing. Poor visual memory  Relies on spelling and decoding words phonetically  Reading is laborious Frequent spelling errors  Writes rede /ready, enuf /enough Increased decoding errors  Reads log instead of laugh Difficulty differentiating b/w visual patterns, recalling things in sequential order, telling things apart from larger visual field  Where’s Waldo  Cluttered blackboard = disorientation 3 Types of Dyslexia

48 7 Patterns of Dyslexia

49 Blurring and Distortion of words Concluding paragraph. Essential for structuring and writing an essay is, of course, deciding what to say, how to go about assessing a particular argument for the purpose of constructing an interpretation of it. Th is co urse wil lst riv etoeq pst ud ent swi th bas ic crit ical t hin kingan d es sa ywri ting sk il ls. Understanding complex sentences, (especially in testing situation) I will meet you for lunch unless you call to cancel. It would be easier to say: I will meet you for lunch. Call if you need to cancel. Other Difficulties:

50 Understanding negative sentences Which one was not there? What aspect cannot be understood? Reading small print below pt font Reading poor quality photocopies Reading on white paper Confusion with math symbols Reading the teacher’s writing if not written very clearly “½ “could look like “y2” “At” may look like “A+” Other Difficulties:

51 IEPS ACCOMMODATIONS MODIFICATIONS SPECIALIZED TUTORING & READING PROGRAMS So What Can Teachers Do to Help Their Students With Dyslexia?

52 BE AWARE OF THE SIGNS!! So What Can Teachers Do to Help Their Students With Dyslexia?

53 GENERAL LISTENING DIFFICULTIES MATH DIFFICULTIES ORGANIZATIONAL SKILLS PHYSICAL PROBLEMS PERFORMANCE DURING TESTS AND EXAMINATIONS Common Traits and Behaviours in Students with Dyslexia

54 Most students will exhibit at least 10 or more traits or behaviours. Only qualified diagnostician s may test and diagnose dyslexia. Signs of dyslexia manifest themselves differently in different age groups. Common Traits and Behaviours in Students with Dyslexia

55 General Listening difficulties Math difficulties Organization skills Physical problems Performance during tests and exams Appears bright, highly intelligent, and articulate but unable to read, write, or spell at grade level. Labelled lazy, dumb, careless, immature, "not trying hard enough," or "behaviour problem.“ Has difficulty sustaining attention; seems "hyper" or "daydreamer.“ Aren’t "behind enough" or "bad enough" to be helped in the school setting. They may have a high IQ, but not test well academically; tests well orally, but not written.

56 General Listening difficulties Math difficulties Organization skills Physical problems Performance during tests and exams Feels dumb; has poor self-esteem; hides or covers up their weaknesses with compensatory strategies; They may be easily frustrated and emotional about school reading or testing. Talented in art, drama, music, sports, mechanics, story-telling, sales, business, designing, building, or engineering. Seems to "Zone out" or daydream often; gets lost easily or loses track of time. Learns best through hands-on experience, demonstrations, experimentation, observation, and visual aids.

57 General Listening difficulties Math difficulties Organization skills Physical problems Performance during tests and exams When the teacher has his/her back to students In a noisy room When the teacher uses unfamiliar words without visual support Misunderstanding instructions Misunderstanding long complex sentences Screening out unimportant information

58 General Listening difficulties Math difficulties Organization skills Physical problems Performance during tests and exams Memorizing multiplication tables Reversing numbers Losing place in long division Difficulty with word problems because of poor reading skills

59 General Listening difficulties Math difficulties Organization skills Physical problems Performance during tests and exams Forgetting assignments and/or appointments Forgetting books at home or at school Losing papers Miscalculating the time needed for tasks Getting lost in an unfamiliar building (sometimes in a familiar building as well) Getting mixed up between left-right, west- east, up-down Difficulty telling the time ( if using a clock with hands) Messy desk

60 General Listening difficulties Math difficulties Organization skills Physical problems Performance during tests and exams Migraine headache caused by fluorescent lighting or weather Inability to concentrate under particular weather conditions Extreme stress during testing situations Unexplained days of total fatigue A feeling of being overwhelmed when a large amount of writing is required Circulation problems affecting the ability to sit still for a long period of time Sensitivity to some sounds, such as: speaker phone, hand clapping in a theater etc)

61 General Listening difficulties Math difficulties Organization skills Physical problems Performance during tests and exams Motion sickness caused by vertical/horizontal blinds in a room Visual disturbance caused by strong contrast (a teacher in a checkered/striped shirt) Sensitivity to perfumes, strong deodorant or chemicals Physical pain in wrist and hands in producing written work Motion sickness affecting the ability to use elevators, escalators, driving etc. Auditory problems in the presence of background noise (someone tapping a pencil on the desk, or a noise from an adjacent room etc.)

62 General Listening difficulties Math difficulties Organization skills Physical problems Performance during tests and exams Discrepancy between knowledge of subject matter and performance on tests Slow reading rate increased by blurring of words (words may jump all over the page or totally disappear) Stress affecting memory for simple known words (e.g.: forgetting what the word ‘division’ or ‘multiply’ means) Inability to produce written work on the spot Writing in the wrong column of the multiple choice type questions (the columns can switch back and forth and then the student writes the wrong answer)

63 General Listening difficulties Math difficulties Organization skills Physical problems Performance during tests and exams Discrepancy between knowledge of subject matter and performance on tests Slow reading rate increased by blurring of words (words may jump all over the page or totally disappear) Stress affecting memory for simple known words (e.g.: forgetting what the word ‘division’ or ‘multiply’ means) Inability to produce written work on the spot Writing in the wrong column of the multiple choice type questions (the columns can switch back and forth and then the student writes the wrong answer)

64 General Listening difficulties Math difficulties Organization skills Physical problems Performance during tests and exams Inability to write in a room with fluorescent lighting (causes words on the page to move) Slow reading makes understanding ‘trick’ questions next to impossible. Does not “see” non-image words such as: at, after, last, etc. Substituting a word not picked up by the spellchecker.

65 What Else Can Teachers Do To Help Their Students With Dyslexia?

66 What Teachers Can Do: Understand that children with dyslexia experience many setbacks both academically and emotionally. Be aware of the fact that high rates of co-morbidity between dyslexia and AD/HD have been observed and many researchers have theorised that this is possibly caused by the fact that dyslexia makes it so hard for students to keep up with class that they end up behind, unable to follow along and consequently distracted and possibly disruptive.

67 What Teachers Can Do: Finally: Be aware of the following list of accommodations and modifications that can be made on behalf of students with dyslexia to help make their learning easier and increase their chances of success in the classroom:

68 Accommodations: Materials & Teaching Accommodations: Materials & Teaching Use explicit teaching procedures Use step-by-step instructions Provide graphic organizers Write legibly on the board or on the student’s papers Avoid cluttered text /blackboard Clarify or simplify written directions Keep written instructions short and precise Provide student with oral instructions Use mnemonic instruction Avoid complex language Highlight essential information in handouts and the blackboard What Teachers Can Do:

69 Accommodations: Materials & Teaching Accommodations: Materials & Teaching Simultaneously combine verbal and visual information Use a type face which is easier to read (ask the student) Permit tape recoding or make typewritten notes available Allow students to tape record responses to class assignments Provide additional practice activities Provide a content glossary Develop reading guides Use coloured paper Avoid vertical and/or horizontal blinds in the viewing range of the student Try to avoid fluorescent lighting Maintain predictable daily routines What Teachers Can Do:

70 Accommodations: Materials & Teaching Accommodations: Materials & Teaching Reinforcing students for class participation Repeat directions Emphasize daily Review What Teachers Can Do:

71 Accommodations: Test-Taking Accommodations: Test-Taking What Teachers Can Do:

72 Accommodations: Test-Taking Accommodations: Test-Taking Reading level should be 2 years below grade level. Give extra time to complete the examination Allow a scribe/reader knowledgeable on the subject matter, to read, write the exam. Allow use of a computer Use coloured paper Provide a private exam room without fluorescent lights Allow a short ‘health break’ Accept poor grammar and spelling mistakes avoid trick questions in multiple choice exams Underline key words such as: at, after, not, etc. on tests What Teachers Can Do:

73 Accommodations: Test-Taking Accommodations: Test-Taking Avoid asking questions which contain double negatives Underline the key word in negative questions, such as: Which country is not in South America? Do not hesitate to clarify a particular exam question Use fill-in-the-blank, match up type tests instead of long essays Provide dyslexic student with a choice of the test format more suited to his/her type of dyslexia such as: multiple choice-type questions, oral presentations, or fill-in-the- blank-type questions. What Teachers Can Do:

74 Modifications: Assignments, Tests and the Curriculum Modifications: Assignments, Tests and the Curriculum Utilize specialized curriculum Allow use of calculators and computers Modify weight of exams Oral testing Modify homework Lower reading level of assignment Adjust length of assignment Avoid penalizing for spelling errors What Teachers Can Do:

75 CASE STUDY

76 Amy is 10 years old and in grade 4. She is friendly, sociable, and very bright and her favourite subjects are art, gym and science. Amy has demonstrated so much potential in her ability to learn new things and generate great ideas. She loves to participate in classroom discussions and always makes insightful contributions. Lately however, her behaviour and motivation to do well in class has begun to deteriorate and she is quickly falling behind. Amy has consistently been reading and writing below grade level since kindergarten – this year, she is reading, writing and spelling at a grade 1 level. She never finishes her work on time and reading for her is very laborous. Despite constant reminders and (failed) spelling tests, she frequently misreads words that sound or look similar to what is actually on the page. CASE STUDY

77 Amy also confuses similar looking letters when she writes, like “m” with “n” and “d” with “b”. She once wrote that “I was afrab of the dig drown bog”. During reading activities, teachers constantly tell her to read more carefully and to take more time with her writing. Recently however, Amy has confessed that letters to her, “just don’t make sense”, they just float in front of her eyes, meaningless.. Amy frequently fails to finish her work on time as well. One day, at recess, they found Amy crying in a stairwell because she had just been reprimanded for never finishing her work on time. She admitted that she had no choice because the only way she can follow along with what was being done in class (if it involved reading), was if she would wait to watch and see and hear what the other children were doing. Because of her reading problem, Amy is quickly falling behind in class, and this is causing her to lose out on opportunities to participate as much as she would like. CASE STUDY

78 She used to work extra hard with her family and her teachers after school to catch up on work that she fell behind in and this left her with little time to relax and play. Often, Amy, her family and her teachers would end up frustrated by her slow progress. Her teacher had suspicions of a particular reading disability, but until now, her parents had been hesitant to have her tested. They did not want her labelled and they thought that she could over-come her difficulties with just a little more effort and time. They also didn’t want her treated any differently than the rest of the students in the class. CASE STUDY

79 Today, Amy’s parents have chanced their mind because - Despite all of her efforts, as the school years have progressed and as the work has become more and more advanced, Amy is simply not making the kind of progress that she should. Her passion for learning has actually started to decline and she is becoming resentful at how hard she has to work compared to everyone else. Moreover, she has also begun to lose confidence in her self and her cognitive abilities, making her academically and socially withdrawn within the classroom setting. Finally, Amy has also begun to pay less attention in class, becoming disruptive if she doesn’t understand something and getting up from her seat whenever she wants. CASE STUDY

80 When Amy’s parents get back with her from testing... What sort of exceptionality, if any would you think Amy might have? What sort of things can Amy’s teachers do to help her succeed better in class and regain her confidence in her ability to learn just like everyone else? CASE STUDY

81 Side Note Famous People with DyslexiaFamous People with Dyslexia (1) Famous People with DyslexiaFamous People with Dyslexia (2)

82 Resources Scholarly Articles Gillberg, C. (2003). Deficits in attention, motor control, and perception: a brief review. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 88(10), 904. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. Lyon, G., Shaywitz, S., & Shaywitz, B. (2003). A Definition of Dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia, Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. Pennington, B. (2003). Understanding the Comorbidity of Dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia, Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. Shaywitz, S., Morris, R., & Shaywitz, B. (2008). The Education of Dyslexic Children from Childhood to Young Adulthood. Annual Review of Psychology, 59(1), doi: /annurev.psych Thomson, M. (1999). Subtypes of dyslexia: a teaching artefact? This paper is based on the first Tim Miles lecture given at Bangor, 16 May Dyslexia ( ), 5(3), Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.

83 Resources Periodicals Shaywitz, S. (1996). Dyslexia. Scientific American, 275(5), 98. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. Books Pierangelo, R., & Giuliani, G. A. (2006). Learning disabilities: a practical approach to foundations, assessment, diagnosis, and teaching. Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.

84 Resources Websites Page 1 Davis, R. D. (1992). 37 common characteristics of dyslexia. Retrieved from International Dyslexia Organization. (2004). Social and emotional problems related to dyslexia. Retrieved from International Dyslexia Organization. (2008). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and dyslexia. Retrieved from International Dyslexia Organization. (2008). Dyslexia basics. Retrieved from International Dyslexia Organization. (2008). Is my Child dyslexic?. Retrieved from International Dyslexia Organization. (2009). Multisensory structured language teaching. Retrieved from 08.pdf 08.pdf International Dyslexia Organization. (2008). Spelling. Retrieved from International Dyslexia Organization. (2009). Testing and evaluation. Retrieved from

85 Resources Websites Page 2 International Dyslexia Organization. (2009). Understanding dysgraphia. Retrieved from Brazeau-Ward, L. (2005). I’m confused, is it dyslexia or is it learning disability?. Retrieved from Brazeau-Ward, L. (2005). The SMT method: A multisensory teaching method for students with dyslexia. Retrieved from Brazeau-Ward, L. (2005). University and dyslexia. Retrieved from Brazeau-Ward, L. (n.d). Specific developmental dyslexia. Retrieved from McMains, M. (2008). Dyslexia. Retrieved from Region 10 Education Service Center. (n.d). Accommodations/modifications. Retrieved from Tennessee Branch of the International Dyslexia Association. (n.d). Resource directory. Retrieved from


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