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By: Sheldon Jordan Welleby Elementary, 4 th Grade.

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1 By: Sheldon Jordan Welleby Elementary, 4 th Grade


3 At the end of the lesson, students will understand the meaning of text structure At the end of the lesson, students will know the 5 basic types of text structure found in literature and informational text At the end of the lesson, students will understand how to identify an author’s text structure

4 Text structure refers to how the text (story/article) is organized. The author often organizes a text a certain way to help the reader to better understand it. The five most common examples of text structure are: 1.Description 2.Chronological Order 3.Problem and Solution 4.Cause and Effect 5.Compare and Contrast Knowing the way the text is organized can help you better understand the article and the author’s purpose for writing the article. It can also help you to answer the questions on standardized tests.

5 The author explains a topic, idea, person, place, or thing by listing characteristics, features, and examples. Clue Words: For example, For instance, Characteristics include, Specifically, In addition, Most important, Furthermore, To illustrate, For instance Main Idea WhoWhatWhenWhereHowWhy

6 Disney World sits in the heart of Orlando and is known as the most magical place on earth. Disney World was created by Walt Disney to encourage students to use their imagination and have fun. While visiting Disney World children get to come face to face with some of their favorite characters, ride great rides, and eat amazing food. For example: On my last trip to Disney I got a chance to meet Mickey Mouse, ride Space Mountain, and eat one of my favorite amusement park foods, funnel cakes.

7 Presents events in order from beginning to end. Clue Words: Before, In the Beginning, To Start, First, Next, During, After, Then, Finally, Last, In the Middle, In the End 123

8 Chris walked into the classroom one bright and sunny morning without a care in the world. It was an ordinary day at Welleby Elementary School and he hadn’t gotten use to following his teacher’s routine. First, Chris unpacked his backpack. He then walked over to the backpack area and placed it on the hook. Next, Chris placed his homework in the homework bin and proceeded to the pencil sharpener. After sharpening his pencil, Chris went back to his desk to complete his morning work. At 8:15 Mr. Jordan began his review. Chris looked at the clock and thought to himself only 15 more minutes before we have specials.

9 The text introduces and problem and provides one or more solutions to the problem. Clue Words: Problem, Issue, Cause, Since, Consequently, Therefore, As a Result, Because of, Leads to, Due to, Resolved, Solve, So, Then ProblemAction Solution

10 There I was pulling into the school parking lot when I realized that I left my cellular phone at home. The time was now 7:30am (my time to report to work) so I didn’t have time to go back home to retrieve it. How was I going to make it through the day without my phone? I considered using the office phone to call my mom or dad, but I remembered that they both would be at work. Just when I thought I was all out of solutions, I heard something ringing. Ring…Ring…Ring. It couldn’t be, could it? I tilted my seat back just a little and discovered that my cellular phone had been in the backseat the entire time. I was thankful that my issue was resolved and I didn’t have to spend the day without my phone.

11 The text describes events and identifies reasons (causes) for why something happens. The cause is why something happens. The effect is what happens. Clue Words: Since, Because, If, Due to, As a Result, So, Then, Leads to, Consequently, Therefore Effect Cause

12 The rain began to rush in so Kaela rushed to grab her umbrella. Since the weather channel showed that it would be a sunny day Kaela decided to plan a picnic. Now, her plans had to change. After grabbing her umbrella, Kaela headed over to her best friend Sara’s house. Sara and Sofia were there waiting eagerly for an adventure. Because it was raining outside, the picnic was off. Instead, they decided to go outside and jump in puddles. They knew how to make the best out of a bad situation.

13 Authors use comparisons to describe ideas to readers. Similarities and Differences are shared. Clue Words: Similar, Alike, Same, Just, Like, Both, Different, Unlike, In Contrast, On the Other Hand Difference Same

14 Baseball and softball are similar sports. Both sports are played on a baseball diamond and have the same number of players. Both sports are considered team sports. Unlike softball, baseball requires that the player throw the baseball overhand. The size of the balls are also different. The softball is slightly bigger than the baseball. Softball is usually played by girls, while baseball is usually played by boys. Both sports are fund to play and watch.


16 When I got home from school after a long boring day, I took out the peanut butter, jelly, and bread. After taking the lid off of the jars, I spread the peanut butter on one side of the bread and the jelly on the other, and then I put the two pieces of bread together. After that, I enjoyed it while watching “Cops” on the TV. I swear, that was the best peanut butter and jelly sandwich I ever ate. Sequence Description Compare and Contrast

17 Robert James Fischer was born in Chicago but unlocked the secrets of chess in a Brooklyn apartment right above a candy store. At the age of six he taught himself to play by following the instruction booklet that came with his chess board. After spending much of his childhood in chess clubs, Fischer said that, “One day, I just got good.” That may be a bit of an understatement. At the age of 13 he won the U.S. Junior Chess Championship, becoming the youngest Junior Champion ever. At the age of 14 he won the U.S. Championship and became the youngest U.S. Champion in history. Fischer would go on to become the World Champion of chess, but he would also grow to become his own worst enemy. Instead of defending the title, he forfeited it to the next challenger without even making a move, and the rise of a chess superstar ended with a fizzle. Sequence Description Cause and Effect

18 All matter, all things can be changed in two ways: chemically and physically. Both chemical and physical changes affect the state of matter. Physical changes are those that do not change the make-up or identity of the matter. For example, clay will bend or flatten if squeezed, but it will still be clay. Changing the shape of clay is a physical change, and does not change the matter’s identity. Chemical changes turn the matter into a new kind of matter with different properties. For example, when paper is burnt, it becomes ash and will never be paper again. The difference between them is that physical changes are temporary or only last for a little while, and chemical changes are permanent, which means they last forever. Physical and chemical changes both affect the state of matter. Sequence Compare and Contrast Cause and Effect

19 Many people are confused about why our economy went to shambles in 2008. The crisis was actually the result of a combination of many complex factors. First, easy credit conditions allowed people who were high-risk or unworthy of credit to borrow, and even people who had no income were eligible for large loans. Second, banks would bundle these toxic loans and sell them as packages on the financial market. Third, large insurance firms backed these packages, misrepresenting these high-risk loans as safe investments. Fourth, because of the ease of acquiring credit and the rapid growth in the housing market, people were buying two or three houses, intending to sell them for more than they paid. All of these factors created bubbles of speculation. These bubbles burst, sending the whole market into a downward spiral, causing employers to lose capital and lay off employees. Consumer spending then plummeted and most businesses suffered. The economy is like a big boat, and once it gets moving quickly in the wrong direction, it’s hard to turn it around. Cause and Effect Description Sequence

20 Dr. Miller doesn’t want the tigers to vanish. These majestic beasts are disappearing at an alarming rate. Dr. Miller thinks that we should write to our congress people. If we let them know that we demand the preservation of this species, maybe we can make a difference. Dr. Miller also thinks that we should donate to Save the Tigers. Our donations will help to support and empower those who are fighting the hardest to preserve the tigers. We owe it to our grandchildren to do something. Problem and Solution Description Sequence

21 INDEPENDENT ASSIGNMENT Students will read an article from a kids magazine or one that you find online and determine what the text structure of the article is. Students will write down the clue words that helped them to determine the text structure and tell where they found the clue words. Example: I know that the text structure is cause and effect. In paragraph four of the article the author uses because 4 times to show a cause and effect relationship. For enhancement, consider having students recreate an article using a different type of text structure. Have students compare their article to the original article.

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