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Digitalization. Technology in entertainment media The impact of technology cuts across a number of issues in the delivery of entertainment and news content.

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Presentation on theme: "Digitalization. Technology in entertainment media The impact of technology cuts across a number of issues in the delivery of entertainment and news content."— Presentation transcript:

1 Digitalization

2 Technology in entertainment media The impact of technology cuts across a number of issues in the delivery of entertainment and news content – Content production – Content distribution – Content delivery – Audience response/re-creation

3 Digitalization Undoubtedly the greatest change in recent years has been the move from analog to digital media – From albums to CDs – From linear to nonlinear editing – From analog to digital broadcast – CGI

4 Digitalization has affected all phases and forms of electronic media Digitalization has increased speed, lowered costs, allowed for the inclusion of a wider array of elements in content, provided a vastly increased amount and diversity of access, and made it far more difficult to prevent copyright infringement

5 Historical factors driving adoption of CGI in TV and Film Cost reductions – Increasing computer power – More advanced software Non linear editing – Increasingly sophisticated hardware Consumer demand – Success of blockbuster films, technically advanced TV – General interest in fantasy, adventure

6 Why use CGI in Film and TV? It is not necessarily cheap It doesn’t necessarily save time It is still not as realistic as live action It does not produce as high quality visuals as film However, the differences are becoming smaller over time

7 Why use CGI? CGI greatly increases the control exercised by the director, post-production specialists – Provides for ‘perfect’ environments – Vastly increases potential manipulation in post CGI allows for ‘realistic’ presentation of the fantastic – Dinosaurs, flying lizards, 10-ft. tall blue people, environments CGI saves money on certain visuals, sounds – Especially mattes/background

8 Why not use CGI? Like most of director Robert Zemeckis' films, Death Becomes Her was a technically complex movie to make, and the production had its fair share of mishaps. For example, in a scene where Helen Sharp and Madeline Ashton are battling with shovels, Meryl Streep accidentally scarred Goldie Hawn's face. Streep admitted that she disliked working on a project that focused so heavily on special effects, saying: My first, my last, my only. I think it's tedious. Whatever concentration you can apply to that kind of comedy is just shredded. You stand there like a piece of machinery — they should get machinery to do it. I loved how it turned out. But it's not fun to act to a lampstand. "Pretend this is Goldie, right here! Uh, no, I'm sorry, Bob, she went off the mark by five centimeters, and now her head won't match her neck!" It was like being at the dentist.

9 Pre-production Computer modeling of storyboards – Greater realism/ability to visualize More guidance to camera crew, animators Materials for use in generating producer interest/financial backing Websites, etc. intended to draw financial support Proposals calling for heavier use of effects without greatly increasing the cost – Less need for location shooting, etc.

10 Production Shooting with the knowledge that background, effects will be inserted in post – May be difficult for actors Collection of content (visuals, sounds, motion capture, etc.) that will be used in generating digital portion of final content Scheduling flexibility increased by the ability to shoot different parts of a scene at different times Production of purely digital content – Considered post production in some cases Increasingly, capture using digital media

11 Post-production Revolution in post-production – Vast increase in ability to control final content – Ability to experiment, change, adjust, rearrange – Vast increase in complexity of post-production Multiple video, audio tracks, effects, etc. Ability to choose among a wide array of content from production stage and adjust it to needs of narrative – Much of direction is now carried out in post Like putting together a giant puzzle

12 Removing objects Removing physical objects that are part of the filmed scene – Wires Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon Cliffhanger – Objects/people Forrest Gump

13 Providing the environment Traditional matte – Paint on glass Computerized matte – Computer generated – Copying model and generating matte – Scanned photos/composite model Lord of the Rings Green screen 300 Matrix

14 Characters Animated – 2D v. 3D Toy Story Toy Story 2 Photorealistic – Computer generated Stunt characters Final Fantasy – Scanned actors King Kong Motion capture v. Keyframe Lord of the Rings King Kong Morphing Terminator 2 Black or White


16 Beowulf

17 Avatar

18 Compositing Combination of a large number of independent sources into a single image – Models – Actors – Location shots – Animated characters Lord of the Rings Rotoscoping King Kong

19 Digital effects Explosions Fire Etc.

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