Presentation on theme: "一.结构 : to do ( 否定 ) not to do 二. 时态与语态 主动语态被动语态 一般式 进行式 完成式 完成进行式 不定式 to do to be done to be doing to have done to have been done to have been doing ----------"— Presentation transcript:
一.结构 : to do ( 否定 ) not to do 二. 时态与语态 主动语态被动语态 一般式 进行式 完成式 完成进行式 不定式 to do to be done to be doing to have done to have been done to have been doing ----------
三. 用法 / 功能 To see is to believe. It’s important to learn. (1). 主语 不定式作主语时, 往往放在谓语之后, 用 it 作形式主语. My job to help the patient. Your task to clean the classroom. is (2). 表语
I want to go home. The workers demanded to get better pay. I found it necessary to talk to him again. (3) 宾语 think/ consider/ find it + adj.+ to do 常用动词不定式作宾语的动词有： hope, refuse, learn, set out choose, decide, agree, manage, pretend, plan.
The teacher told me to clean the blackboard. I expect you to give me some help. (4). 宾补 二看 watch see look at 三使 let make have 一听 listen to hear 四注意 : feel warn, tell, allow, help, ask, force 等 notice 五感觉 :
I made him do his work. He was made to do his work (by me). 不定式用在介词 but, except, besides 后时, 如果这些介词前有行为动词 do 的 各种形式, 那么介词后的不定式不带 to, 相反则带 to. (1). She could do nothing but cry. (2). I have no choice but to go. (3).What do you like to do besides sleep.
I have something to say. He has a lot of homework to do. He is looking for a room to live in. There is nothing to worry about. (5). 定语 ( 如果不定式中的动词是不及物动词, 则不定式中要有介词.)
不定式作定语时，应放在被修饰词的后面，而 且放在其他后置定语之后。 1. 不定式做定语与所修饰的词之间有三种关系： (1) 动宾关系 I have a lot of work to do. 我有很多工作要做。 (2) 主谓关系 He is always the first to come. 他总是第一个来。 (3) 同位关系 We all have a chance to go to college. 我们都有上大学的机会。
2. 不定式所修饰的名词或代词是不定式动 作的地点工具等，即使是及物动词，不定 式后面仍须有相应的介词。 3. 不定式所修饰的名词如果是 time, place 或 way ， 不定式后面的介词习惯上要省去。 He had no money and no place to live. 他没钱没地方住。 请给我一支写字的笔. Please give me a pen to write with.
4. something, anything, nothing, everything 等复合不定代词常用不定式做后置定语。 注意比较： 1.Do you have anything to send? 你有什么东西 要寄吗？（不定式 to send 的动作执行者是 you ） 2. Do you have anything to be sent? 你有什么要（我或别人）寄的东西吗？ （不定式 to be sent 的动作执行者是已被省略的 me 或 someone else ）
I came here to see you. He got up early to catch the train. (6) 状语 in order to, so as to, enough to, only to, too….to.,
(7). 独立结构 to be frank, to be honest, to tell the truth To tell the truth, I don’t agree with you.
关于小品词 to (1). 不定式中的动词上文已出现过, 下文要 省略该动词. eg: Would you like to go with me ? I’d like to. (2). 不定式是 to be 结构, be 不可省. eg: Would you like to be a teacher? I’d like to be.
不定式与疑问词 who,which, when, how, what 等连用，在句中起名词作用，可充当主语、表 语、宾语等。 He didn’t know what to say. 他不知道说什么。 ( 宾语 ) How to solve the problem is very important. 如 何解决这个问题很重要。 ( 主语 ) My question is when to start. 我的问题是什么时 候开始。 ( 表语 ) 注意： 在与 why 连用时，只用于 why 或 why not 开头的简 短疑问句中，后面紧跟的动词不定式不带 to 。 Why not have a rest?
固定句型 : 固定句型 : 1.had better/had best + (not) do sth. 最好（不）做某事 2.Why (not) do sth.? 3.…prefer to do/prefer doing 4.…prefer + n./doing A +to + n./doing B 5.…prefer + to do A rather than (to) do B 6.…would rather (not) do sth. 7.…would rather do A than (do) B 8.…would rather + 句子（过去式） （虚拟语气） 要做 ……
(1).They pretended not to see us. (2). He pretended to be sleeping. (3).She pretended to have known it before. ( 一般式表示与谓语的动作同时 / 几乎 / 发生在 它之后.) ( 在谓语动词发生的同时, 不定式的动作也正在进行 ) ( 完成式表示动作发生在谓语动作之前 ) (4).We’re happy to have been working with you. ( 完成进行式表示谓语动作发生之前, 不定式的 动作一直在进行而且可能之后也继续 )
1.My teacher was made _____ his teaching because of poor health. A.giving up B. to give up C. give up D. given up 2.The sentence wants ____ once more. A.explained B. to explain C. being explained D. explaining 3.The Arctic is considered ____ the northern part of the Atlantic. A.having been B. to have been C. to be D. being
4.The Emperor ordered the wonderful cloth _____ for him without delay. A.to have woven B. to be woven C. to be weaving D. to weave 5.I found the German language hard ____. A.learned B. learning C. to be learned D. to learn 6.—The light in the office is still on. --- Oh, I forgot ______. A.turning it off B. turn it off C. to turn it off D. having turned it off
7.---How do you deal with the disagreement between the company and the customers? ---The key ____ the problem is to meet the demand ____ by the customers. A.to solving, making B. to solving, made C. to solve, making D. to solve, made 8. ---What do you think of the school? ----It is a very good _____. A.school to study in B. school for children to study C. studying school D. school to study
9. ---Did you get a job? --- No, I ___, but it’s no use. A.expected B. tried to C. managed to D. planned 10.We find it impossible for the work ___ ahead of time. A.to finish B. finishing C. being finished D. to be finished 11.---I usually go to Shanghai by train. ----Why not ___ there by boat for a change? A.to try to go B. try going C. to try going D. try to go
12.___ a living, she had to work from morning till night. A.To make B. Made C. Making D. To have made 13. I would rather starve to death than ___ for food. A.beg B. begging C. begged D. to beg 14.The boy pretended ____ when his mother entered. A.reading B. to read C. to be reading D. being read
1. Robert is said ____ abroad, but I don’t know what country he studied in. A.to have studied B. to study C. to be studying D. to have been studying 2. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, ____ it more difficult. A.not make B. not to make C. not making D. don’t make 3. I’ve worked with children before, so I know what ____ in my new job. A.expected B. to expect C. to be expecting D. expects
4. Having a trip abroad is certainly good for the old couple, but it remains ____ whether they will enjoy it. A.to see B. to be seen C. seeing D. see 5. It is said in Australia there is more land than the government knows ____. A.it what to do with B. what to do with it C. what to do it with D. to do what with it 6. The mother didn’t know ____ to blame for the broken glass as it happened while she was out. A. who B. when C. how D. why
7. Paul doesn’t have to be made ____. He always works hard. A. learn B. to learn C. learned D. learning 8. We agreed ____ here but so far she hasn’t turned up yet. A. having met B. meeting C. to meet D. to have met 9. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him ____. A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not to
10. The patient was warned ____ oily food after the operation. A. to eat not B.eating not C. not to eat D.not eating 11. I would love ____ to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a report. A. to go B. to have gone C. going D. having gone 12. Charles Babbage is generally considered ____the first computer. A. to invent B. inventing C. to have invented D. having invented
13. Little Jim should love ____ to the theatre this evening. A. to be taken B. to take C. being taken D. taking 14. ____ late in the afternoon, Bob turned off the alarm. A. To sleep B. Sleeping C. Sleep D. Having sleep 15. The teacher asked us ____ so much noise. A. don’t make B. not make C. not making D. not to make
Ex 2 on Page 6 rewriting : He was overheard to say that he hoped John would resign. Peter was made to wait outside. He was heard to unlock the door and go out. The man was seen to shoot the woman on the street. The old lady was noticed to wipe her face with a handkerchief.
Ex 1 Translation on Page 49 I forgot to ask you to go to the bank. It is very important to turn off the electricity before you check the machine. I know how to make a mouse out of my handkerchief. Luckily, we don’t have much more work to do. She was very pleased to have the opportunity to travel while she was young. She has been very successful in her work, and now her greatest wish is to get married and have a child. Using structures
1. … started pushing/ to push… 2. … promised to go… 3. … advise you to eat… 4. … began shouting/to shout… 5. … avoid falling … 6. … forget to call… 7. … felt like throwing… 8. … let them stay… 1. a. to tell b. spending 2. a. putting b. to check 3. a. talking b. to make c. to drink 4. a. to get b. thinking Exercises 2 and 3 on P49