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Slide 1Rolf Black, RAatE 2008, Coventry, 1 December 2008v Supporting Personal Narrative for School Children with Communication Disorders Rolf Black, Annalu.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1Rolf Black, RAatE 2008, Coventry, 1 December 2008v Supporting Personal Narrative for School Children with Communication Disorders Rolf Black, Annalu."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1Rolf Black, RAatE 2008, Coventry, 1 December 2008v Supporting Personal Narrative for School Children with Communication Disorders Rolf Black, Annalu Waller; University of Dundee Ehud Reiter, Ross Turner; University of Aberdeen RAatE 2008, Monday, 1 st December 2008, 11.30am The Development of a Prototype

2 Slide 2Rolf Black, RAatE 2008, Coventry, 1 December 2008 Outline  Personal Narrative, Stories & AAC  The Feasibility Study  Development of the Prototype  User Centred Design  Observations: Current Systems  System Design: Backend & Frontend  Next Steps

3 Slide 3Rolf Black, RAatE 2008, Coventry, 1 December 2008 Personal Narrative, Stories & AAC – The Feasibility Study – The Prototype – Next Steps Why stories are important (Waller, 2006)  relating and sharing experiences  developing self image  expressing personality  provides form and meaning to life  developing organisational skills  working through problems  entertainment (being interesting people)

4 Slide 4Rolf Black, RAatE 2008, Coventry, 1 December 2008 “The major bulk of interaction takes place through the medium of Story” (Cheepen, 1988) But... AAC* systems (light & hi tech) are designed to facilitate transactional communication. * AAC - Augmentative and Alternative Communication Personal Narrative, Stories & AAC – The Feasibility Study – The Prototype – Next Steps

5 Slide 5Rolf Black, RAatE 2008, Coventry, 1 December 2008 How do children learn to tell stories?  Children's story structures develop initially with scaffolding (Bruner, 1975)  3-year-olds – initiation but seldom expansion (initiation may involve simply telling the punch- line)  4:6-year-olds – initiation & expansion.  6-year-olds - initiation, maintenance & conclusion (Peterson & McCabe, 1983). Personal Narrative, Stories & AAC – The Feasibility Study – The Prototype – Next Steps

6 Slide 6Rolf Black, RAatE 2008, Coventry, 1 December 2008 Scaffolding personal story telling: How was school today? Feasibility/Pilot Study Supporting narrative for non-speaking children Personal Narrative, Stories & AAC – The Feasibility Study – The Prototype – Next Steps

7 Slide 7Rolf Black, RAatE 2008, Coventry, 1 December 2008 How was school today? – Pilot Study  What sorts of stories  Design an interface  How can we use sensor data to generate stories? (e.g. GPS sensors, RFID tags and barcode readers)  Build and evaluate a prototype Personal Narrative, Stories & AAC – The Feasibility Study – The Prototype – Next Steps

8 Slide 8Rolf Black, RAatE 2008, Coventry, 1 December 2008 How was school today? – Issues  Ethics Working with Children in Schools:  Curriculum  Participants need to enjoy taking part in project  Informed consent. Children: Informed ‘assent’  Privacy Collecting private information:  Data protection  System design (Interface, database, etc.) Personal Narrative, Stories & AAC – The Feasibility Study – The Prototype – Next Steps

9 Slide 9Rolf Black, RAatE 2008, Coventry, 1 December 2008 Prototyping: User Centred Design  Story Generation (Backend)  Interface (Frontend) Personal Narrative, Stories & AAC – The Feasibility Study – The Prototype – Next Steps

10 Slide 10Rolf Black, RAatE 2008, Coventry, 1 December 2008 Current Systems of Story Communication: School and Home Diaries Home Diary; Oscar 12 May  Our new headmaster is Mrs May. Donald and Anne went out shopping to get a Wii for the school.  Rolf is in school doing research with DynaVox users. I am taking part and think it is cool. Home Diary; Frederic 14 May  The Wii was set up on the big screen at lunchtime. I got a shot of the golf game. Sue was rubbish at it. Personal Narrative, Stories & AAC – The Feasibility Study – The Prototype – Next Steps

11 Slide 11Rolf Black, RAatE 2008, Coventry, 1 December 2008 Current Systems of Story Communication: Voice Recording Devices, SGDs Voice recording: Step-by-step  Step 1: “I had a visitor today in Speech and Language Therapy.” – Step 2: “Rolf was here to show me his new prototype.” – Step 3: “I really enjoyed trying it out.” Speech Generating Devices (SGDs)  “Today we had a special presentation about the environment project. We met all in the hall and discussed what we could do. I was in a group about fresh water preservation. We...” Personal Narrative, Stories & AAC – The Feasibility Study – The Prototype – Next Steps

12 Slide 12Rolf Black, RAatE 2008, Coventry, 1 December 2008 School Day Observations TimePlaceEventPeopleInteractionComment 9:20 Front entrance Arrives in bus Mary, John Picked up by teaching assistant teaching assistant chat 10:45 Dining room Snack time assistant, Sam, Rolf food Step-by-step recorded: “I met Rolf at Snack time”, “He is here for his new project” 11:00HallEco- School opening event all staff and pupils normally Jane has physio now, her class gets to discuss "Water" and "Global Citizenship" (Other subjects are "transport", "waste", etc.) Personal Narrative, Stories & AAC – The Feasibility Study – The Prototype – Next Steps

13 Slide 13Rolf Black, RAatE 2008, Coventry, 1 December 2008 Interface “Tell story” (PowerPoint) Personal Narrative, Stories & AAC – The Feasibility Study – The Prototype – Next Steps

14 Slide 14Rolf Black, RAatE 2008, Coventry, 1 December 2008 Prototyping: Data Collection  Sensor information:  Time  Location  Interaction (person, object)  Data information  Timetable (classes, activities, staff, location)  Lunch menu  Additional information  Recorded speech messages Personal Narrative, Stories & AAC – The Feasibility Study – The Prototype – Next Steps

15 Slide 15Rolf Black, RAatE 2008, Coventry, 1 December 2008 Data Collection with Sensors RFID Simulator (A. Alshahrani & D. Westwater, 2008) Personal Narrative, Stories & AAC – The Feasibility Study – The Prototype – Next Steps

16 Slide 16Rolf Black, RAatE 2008, Coventry, 1 December 2008 Interface “Tell story” (Clicker5) Personal Narrative, Stories & AAC – The Feasibility Study – The Prototype – Next Steps

17 Slide 17Rolf Black, RAatE 2008, Coventry, 1 December 2008 Next steps  Test run (December 2008)  Shadowing one participant with working system  Setup (January 2009)  Preparation of School, one week  Evaluation of the Prototype  Two participants over one week  Feedback gathering and data analysis Personal Narrative, Stories & AAC – The Feasibility Study – The Prototype – Next Steps

18 Slide 18Rolf Black, RAatE 2008, Coventry, 1 December 2008 Thank you! Contact:

19 Slide 19Rolf Black, RAatE 2008, Coventry, 1 December 2008 AAC Study Day “Guess What Happened Today!” Enabling Children with Complex Communication Needs to Tell Stories 27 January 2009 at The Institute of Child Health, London 28 January 2009 at The Together Trust, Cheadle, Manchester 3 February 2009 at The City Chambers, Edinburgh

20 Slide 20Rolf Black, RAatE 2008, Coventry, 1 December 2008 References  J Bruner (1975). "From communication to language: A psychological perspective." Cognition 3:  C Callaway and Lester J (2002). "Narrative Prose Generation." Artificial Intelligence 139:  B Dawkins (2008). Multi-media profiling, MENCAP.  B Dawkins, J. Cavet, et al. (2006). "Learning the value of multimedia: How profiling supports self advocacy in people with severe intellectual disabilities." Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities 19: 270–280.  A Druin (1999). Beginning a discussion about kids, technology, and design. San Francisco, Morgan Kaufmann.  L Ferres, Parush A, et al. (2006). Helping People with Visual Impairments Gain Access to Graphical Information Through Natural Language: The iGraph System. ICCHP 2006, Lecture Notes in Computer Science K. M. e. al.

21 Slide 21Rolf Black, RAatE 2008, Coventry, 1 December 2008  A Fitzgibbon and Reiter E (2003). Memories for life: Managing information over a human lifetime. G. C. proposal., UK Computing Research Committee (UKCRC).  N Grove (2005) Ways into Literature. London: David Fulton. 2nd Edition of Literature for All: London: David Fulton.  K McKeown, Kukich K, et al. (1994). Practical Issues in Automatic Document Generation. ANLP  R P y Péréz and Sharples M (2004). "Three Computer-Based Models of StoryTelling: BRUTUS, MINSTREL, and MEXICA." Knowledge-Based Systems 17:  C Peterson and McCabe A (1983). Developmental psycholinguistics: Three ways of looking at a child’s narrative. New York, Plenum.  F Portet, Reiter E, et al. (2007). Automatic Generation of Textual Summaries from Neonatal Intensive Care Data. AIME  E Reiter (2007). An Architecture for Data-to-Text Systems. ENLG  E Reiter and Dale R (2000). Building Natural-Language Generation Systems., Cambridge University Press. References (cont)

22 Slide 22Rolf Black, RAatE 2008, Coventry, 1 December 2008  E Reiter, Sripada S, et al. (2005). "Choosing Words in Computer-Generated Weather Forecasts." Artificial Intelligence 167:  J Robertson and Cross B (2004). "Children’s perceptions about writing with their teacher and the StoryStation learning environment." International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Lifelong Learning. 14:  G Soto, Hartmann E, et al. (2006). "Exploring the Elements of Narrative that Emerge in the Interactions between an 8-Year-Old Child who uses an AAC Device and her Teacher." Augmentative and Alternative Communication 22(4): pp  S Sripada, Reiter E, et al. (2005). Evaluating an NLG System using Post-Editing.. IJCAI  A Turner (1999). "Scaffolding the storytelling abilities of a group of pupils with learning disabilities using computers: A case study." British Journal of Learning Disabilities 27:  R Turner, Sripada S, et al. (In Press). Selecting the Content of Textual Descriptions of Geographically Located Events in Spatio-Temporal Weather Data. ES-07. References (cont)

23 Slide 23Rolf Black, RAatE 2008, Coventry, 1 December 2008 References (cont)  A Waller (In Press). Personal Narrative and AAC: From Transactional to Interactional Conversation. Ninth Biennial ISAAC Research Symposium - Theoretical and Methodological Challenges for Research and Practice in Augmentative and Alternative Communication (2006).  A Waller (2006). "Communication Access to Conversational Narrative." Topics in Language Disorders 26(3):  A Waller, O'Mara D, et al. (2005). Facilitating user feedback in the design of a novel joke generation system for people with severe communication impairment. HCI International 5 (CD ROM). Las Vegas, Nevada, USA.  A Waller and O’Mara D (2003). Aided communication and the development of personal storytelling. Augmentative and Alternative Communication: Developmental Issues, 11. S. v. Tetzchner and N. Grove: pp References (cont)


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