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McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 Situational Factors.

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Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 Situational Factors."— Presentation transcript:

1 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 Situational Factors

2 4-2 Introduction Situational factors influence the leadership process: –Size of the organization –Social and psychological climate –Patterns of employment –Type, place, and purpose of work performed Leader-follower compatibility

3 4-3 Size of the Organization An organization’s size demands certain types of leadership skills –Leaders of small organizations: Salespeople and production managers Chief advocate Organize, assign, coach, evaluate –Leaders of large organizations: Focus on public image and investment plans Think in terms of the community and marketplace

4 4-4 Social and Psychological Climate Factors that influence: –Confusion –Anxiety –Depair Pre-WWII Germany –Great depression –Unemployed people –Lack of educational factor –Circumstances were ripe for leadership

5 4-5 Patterns of Employment Charles Handy, The Age of Unreason –Describes how contemporary patterns of work change –“Shamrock” organization has three workforces One is permanent, two are temporary –Unusual work assignments are part of new patterns that challenge leadership

6 4-6 Type, Place, and Purpose of Work The type of work is an important factor –Work duties are clear-cut, routine or monotonous: Non-directive, supportive approach –Work duties loosely defined: Directive, task oriented approach Context of place and purpose is also a factor –Where is the setting? –What is the challenge?

7 4-7 Different Kinds of Intelligence Intelligence is multidimensional Crystallized intelligence: –Lifetime of intellectual attainments –Can be increased over time Fluid intelligence: –Involves mental flexibility –Ability to process information rapidly

8 4-8 Different Kinds of Intelligence Different situations require different kinds of intelligence –Keith Rogers, Robert Sternberg, and Howard Gardner developed Indicator of Multiple Intelligences Combination of crystallized and fluid abilities Seven kinds of intelligence –People are a unique blend and differ in the degree of preference and competence

9 4-9 Seven Kinds of Intelligence Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence –Enjoys reading and writing –Good memory for names and places –Likes to tell stories Learns by: –Seeing, saying, and hearing words

10 4-10 Seven Kinds of Intelligence Musical-Rhythmic Intelligence –Sensitive to environmental sounds –Enjoys music –Listens to music while studying or reading Learns through: –Melody and music

11 4-11 Seven Kinds of Intelligence Logical-Mathematical Intelligence –Likes to work with numbers, perform experiments, and explore patterns and relationships –Enjoys doing activities in sequential order –Learns by: Classifying information Engaging in abstract thinking Looking for basic principles

12 4-12 Seven Kinds of Intelligence Visual-Spatial Intelligence –Engages in imagining things –Senses changes –Works mazes and puzzles –Likes to draw, build, design, and create –Learns by: Looking at pictures, watching movies, visualizing

13 4-13 Seven Kinds of Intelligence Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence –Processes knowledge through bodily sensations –Body is used in skilled ways –Responds best in physical activities and hands-on learning situations –Can manipulate objects with finesse

14 4-14 Seven Kinds of Intelligence Intrapersonal Intelligence –Creative and independent thinkers with strong opinions –Focuses on: Thoughts and feelings Following personal instincts Pursuing goals

15 4-15 Seven Kinds of Intelligence Interpersonal Intelligence –Enjoys being with people, likes talking with others, and engaging in social activities –Ability to understand people –Learns by: Relating, sharing, participating

16 4-16 Different Kinds of Intelligence Intelligence is complex and multidimensional –Strengths are found in different areas Effective leadership is in direct proportion to strength of commitment –The force of an idea is determined by the intelligence style of the leader

17 4-17 Styles of Leading Important factor: –Leader-follower compatibility is based on leadership style Styles of leading: –Directive –Participative –Free-rein

18 4-18 Emphasis in the Use of Power Figure 4-2 shows the emphasis of power for three leadership styles

19 4-19 Styles of Leading There are five points to remember about leadership styles, according to: –Hollander, Vroom, and Yetton –Tannenbaum and Schmidt –Hersey and Blanchard –Daniel Goldman; and others

20 4-20 Five Points of Leadership Styles 1.People develop preferred styles by modeling others, going through formal training, and learning from personal experience 2.An individual prefers the same style of leading and following 3.Leaders are successful along all points of the continuum

21 4-21 Five Points of Leadership Styles 4.There is no universal style of leading –Best style depends on: The qualities of the leader Characteristics of the followers The nature of the situation –Shift from: Directive to free-rein Hierarchy to community work culture

22 4-22 Five Points of Leadership Styles 5.If leading and following styles conflict, patience and communication are needed: –Decision making Directive leaders are upset by free-rein followers Free-rein followers work best on special assignments –Goal Setting Directive followers may be upset by free-rein leaders Directive followers work best when duties are spelled out

23 4-23 Five Points of Leadership Styles Communication –Participative followers: Upset by leaders who fail to have staff meetings, ignore the open door policy, and show little concern for others’ feelings Want open communication and involvement in the decision making process

24 4-24 Leadership Effectiveness Today Leadership is: –More art than science –More skill than knowledge –Difficult Douglas McGregor, “No Easy Task” –Originator of theory X and theory Y –Describes how difficult leadership is Leaders must add new demands to traditional duties

25 4-25 Leadership Demands and Duties Effective leaders must be: –Director and motivator –Implementer and innovator –Mentor and team builder –Expert and moral force –Organizer and developer of people These challenges bring satisfaction and appreciation

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