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The Rise of the Novel Defoe and Swift. Dates 1660: Restoration of Charles II 1666: the Great Fire of London 1685: accession of James II 1688-89: the Glorious.

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Presentation on theme: "The Rise of the Novel Defoe and Swift. Dates 1660: Restoration of Charles II 1666: the Great Fire of London 1685: accession of James II 1688-89: the Glorious."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Rise of the Novel Defoe and Swift

2 Dates 1660: Restoration of Charles II 1666: the Great Fire of London 1685: accession of James II : the Glorious Revolution; accession of William of Orange 1700: death of John Dryden 1707: the Act of Union 1715: the first Jacobite uprising : reign of Queen Anne : Sir Robert Walpole Prime Minister 1745: the second Jacobite uprising 1789: the French Revolution

3 Literary Periods :

4 Literary Periods : the Restoration Period (the Age of Dryden) :

5 Literary Periods : the Restoration Period (the Age of Dryden) : the Augustan Period (the Age of Pope and Swift) :

6 Literary Periods : the Restoration Period (the Age of Dryden) : the Augustan Period (the Age of Pope and Swift) : the Age of Sensibility (the Age of Dr Johnson) Restoration Period+Augustan Period: the Age of Reason

7 Cultural Background The Age of Enlightenment: value of reason, fear of unreason, hatred of pedantry Neoclassicism: Augustan Period Restoration Period: forerunners of Neoclassicism (Dryden)

8 New Genres Drama: –Heroic plays (Dryden, All for Love, 1677) –Comedies of manners (Congreve, The Way of the World, 1700) Poetry: –Heroic couplet (Dryden, Absalom and Achitophel, 1681)

9 Neoclassicist Poetics Imitation of nature: –‘landscape’ (Dryden) –‘Human nature’ (Pope) –‘universal truths’ (Dr Johnson) Imitation of Classical literature: –Perfect imitations of nature –Craftmanship –Codification of rules in literature

10 The Augustan Period The Age of Swift, Pope, Addison, Walpole Expansion of reading public –New journalism –Professional writers and booksellers

11 New genres Sentimental comedy: Gay, The Beggar’s Opera (1728) Mock heroic: Swift, Battle of the Books (1697, 1704); Pope, The Rape of the Lock (1712, 1714) Landscape poems: Thomson, Winter (1726) Novel: Defoe, Robinson Crusoe (1719)

12 The Antecedents of the Novel Newspapers: Grub Street, ‘scribblers’, gossips, reports Journals: best writers, didacticism, model for taste, education of middle classes; Steele and Addison, Tatler and Spectator ( , ) Pamphlets and satires: political, occasional, ridicule Other: essays, travelogues, biographies, letters

13 Swift’s pamphlets and satires ‘A Modest Proposal’ (1729): political, against Walpole, mask of indifference, savage indignation, ‘reductio ad absurdum’; misanthropy Battle of the Books (1697, 1704): occasional, Sir William Temple, mock heroic in prose; ancients (new ancients) V moderns; the bee and the spider

14 Defoe’s innovations Reportage: keen eye for the detail Narrative realism Fictitious events against a realistic background ‘the father of the English novel’

15 Robinson Crusoe (1719) The first full-length prose fiction, the first English popular novel Application of journalism World view of middle classes

16 Swift’s innovations A master of irony, satire, a moralist Belief in reason but misanthropy: ‘I hate and detest that animal called man, although I heartily love John, Peter, Thomas, and so forth.’ Man is not a reational being but is capable of reason

17 Gulliver’s Travels (1726) Genre: fictitious travelogue, in matter of fact style Other: dystopia, utopia, satire, mock heroic, romance, allegory Paradox: most comprehensive satire and children’s classic Development of Gulliver’s character: from irony to bitter satire

18 Further reading Róna Éva, A XVIII. század angol irodalma (Bp.: Tankönyvkiadó, 1992)...


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