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Exposition. Inform established knowledge objectively No influence of opinions or emotions or criticism or argument uses all common organizational patterns.

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Presentation on theme: "Exposition. Inform established knowledge objectively No influence of opinions or emotions or criticism or argument uses all common organizational patterns."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exposition

2 Inform established knowledge objectively No influence of opinions or emotions or criticism or argument uses all common organizational patterns (definition, classification, cause and effect,comparison and contrast, etc.)

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4 Concerning the Loch Ness monster, different individuals have their own explanations: Professor Black thinks the monster is a plesiosaur that is still alive. Doctor March believes the monster is just a hoax to attract attention. Mr. Bates considers that the monster is just a big whale. Officer Hall thinks the monster could be a giant fish. Exposition: list of theories

5 Different people have different opinions about free-trade agreements: Some think that they are ways to enslave poor, developing countries. Others think they are a good way for developing countries to improve. Other people see them as ineffective measures to improve developing countries, but without a real negative impact on them. A number of people don’t care at all about them. Exposition: list of arguments

6 Exposition uses all of the common organizational patterns such as definition, classification, cause and effect, etc. “explanations” Specific function “discursive function”

7 Discursive functions Identifying an explanation Rejecting an explanation Redefining an explanation Amplifying an explanation Listing an explanation

8 An addiction is often seen as a chronic neurobiological disorder that has genetic, psychological, and environmental dimension. It is characterized by one of the following: the continued use of a substance despite its detrimental effects, impaired control over the use of a drug (compulsive behavior), and preoccupation with a drug’s use for nontherapeutic purposes (i.e. craving the drug). This traditional approach, however, fails to consider addictions that are not substance-related, such as problem gambling and computer addiction. Recently, young people often affirm that they have also become addicted to their phones. In this light, the term addiction should also give room to compulsions not necessarily related to drugs. Identifying an explanation Amplifying/listing an explanation Rejecting an explanation Amplifying an explanation Redefining an explanation

9 Explicit & Implicit Information

10 Explicit Information The main ideas The supporting details Outlining

11 Title What the text is about Expressed as a noun or noun phrase: Medicine Legal medicine in Costa Rica Topic sentence The sentence in a paragraph that contains the main idea Expressed as a sentence: Most medicines have side effects.

12 Outlining The main ideas and the subsidiary ideas of any subject Expressed as a nouns, noun phrases, or sentences: I. Medicine 1. history a. cavemen b. Middle ages c. Modern age

13 Implicit Informa tion Inferences * real * false * not implied

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15 Tips for drawing Inferences: 1. Rely mainly on the author’s words rather than your own feelings or non-applicable experience. 2. Check if your inference is contradicted by any statements in the paragraph. 3. Engage in close reading to double check your inferences.

16 I woke up, and it was still dark. My brother was not in his bed. I went downstairs and saw that my father was really nervous. My brother was crying while my mother comforted him. Then, I heard a siren and saw a flashing red light. Then, two paramedics came inside the house. The text says: my father was really nervous I know: When people are nervous, it’s usually because an unusual event happened, is happening, or will happen.

17 The text says: my brother was crying while my mother comforted him I know: If someone comforts another person who is crying it’s because that person might be in pain, might be sad, or might fear or regret something.

18 I woke up, and it was still dark. My brother was not in his bed. I went downstairs and saw that my father was really nervous. My brother was crying while my mother comforted him. Then, I heard a siren and saw a flashing red light. Then, two paramedics came inside the house. The text says: I heard a siren and saw a flashing red light. I know: Sirens and flashing red lights are usually associated with ambulances.

19 I woke up, and it was still dark. My brother was not in his bed. I went downstairs and saw that may father was really nervous. My brother was crying while my mother comforted him. Then, I heard a siren and saw a flashing red light. Then, two paramedics came inside the house. The text says: Two paramedics came inside the house. I know: When paramedics come at unusual hours, very probably someone is sick and needs medical care.

20 I woke up, and it was still dark. My brother was not in his bed. I went downstairs and saw that may father was really nervous. My brother was crying while my mother comforted him. Then, I heard a siren and saw a flashing red light. Then, two paramedics came inside the house. Inference My brother is sick and needs medical help.

21 Types of Inferences 3

22 Real inference efficient interaction between background knowledge and the information suggested by the text. A majority of readers may draw the same inference because the text-reader interaction is logically consistent.

23 My sister went on a date at 6pm. At 6:30 she was back home and in a terrible mood. Real inference: She had a problem in her date or was jilted.

24 False inference Undergoes the same process as the real inferences contradicts the textual information.

25 My sister went on a date at 6pm. At 6:30 she was back home and in a terrible mood. False inference: Her date went so well that she was angry to come back home.

26 Not implied inference A product of a personal, individual association The text does not have enough information to support the inference. May seem logical to the person that draws it, but other readers will unlikely arrive at the same inference

27 My sister went on a date at 6pm. At 6:30 she was back home and in a terrible mood. Not implied inference: The person she went out with was arrested.

28 The first reaction upon hearing about the topic of battered men, for many people, is that of incredulity. Battered husbands are a topic for jokes (such as the cartoon image of a woman chasing her husband with a rolling pin). One researcher noted that wives were perpetrators in 73% of the depictions of domestic violence in newspaper comics (Saenger, 1963). Battered husbands have historically been either ignored or subjected to ridicule and abuse. In 18 th -century France, a battered husband “was made to wear an outlandish outfit and ride backwards around the village on a donkey” (Steinmetz & Lucca, 1988). Even those of us who like to consider ourselves liberated and open-minded often have a difficult time even imagining that husband battering could take place. Although feminism has opened many of our eyes about the existence of domestic violence, and newspaper reports often include incidents of abuse of wives, the abuse of husbands is a rarely discussed phenomenon.


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