Presentation on theme: "Empowerment & Transition Management Flor Avelino 20th of September 2007."— Presentation transcript:
Empowerment & Transition Management Flor Avelino 20th of September 2007
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Empowerment Delegating decision-making authority Releasing power within people Motivational construct
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Empowerment = a necessary condition for transition management Transition management = about empowerment Empowerment & Transition Management
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions “the ultimate goal of transition management should be to influence and empower civil society in such a way that people themselves shape sustainability in their own environments, and in doing so contribute to the desired transitions to sustainability” (Loorbach, 2007:84, emphasis added)
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Where Empowerment & Transition Management Meet Innovation & organisational change Transformational leadership, vision Inter-level dynamics, top-down & bottom-up, non-linearity, new organisational forms beyond hierarchy, self-organisation, adaptation, flexibility
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Psychology Extrinsic versus intrinsic task motivation Task assesments –Choice –Impact –Meaning –Competence Beyond participation and power sharing
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Management Internal vs. External Commitment Hierarchical Culture => Empowerment Leadership Mid-level managers: downward & upward influence
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Critical Theory Power = self-developing capacity => cannot be given Empowering others = inherently disempowering Cannot change relations of power without changing the system Empowerment in terms of emancipation and resistance
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions TRANSUMO Theme Governance Processes A15 – Project Logistical Networks European Networks National Networks 2005-2006
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Transition Terminology Imposed from ´above´ and from ´outside´ => extrinsic motivation => no sense of choice, impact, meaning and competence Dependency on ´experts´ that can ´explain´ Transition (management) concepts can be empowering
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Theme- & Project-leaders Mid-level managers have conflicting external commitments Mid-level managers do not receive context- specific support Unempowered mid-level managers are resistent to change and risk-aversive Hierarchical culture
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions (Randolph, 2000:98)
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Power Relations & Stereotypes Conflicts emerge between participants Unbalanced power relations in the sector are enforced within the project Stereotypes are confirmed Beyond “participation” & contact-theory Identify, challenge and openly discuss Creating a setting for (self)empowerment
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Empowerment = a necessary condition for TM, especially for ´transitionising´
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions 1.Translate transition concepts to the local language 2.Use TM concepts to increase intrinsic motivation (choice, impact, meaning & competence) 3.Concrete support for mid-level managers 4.Shift hierarchical culture => empowerment culture 5.Identify unbalanced relations of power + stereotypes among participants 6.Empower incumbent participants by celebrating the competences they do have Empowering ´Transitionising´ Skills
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Transition Management Research Action research Evaluation and ´monitoring´ Awareness of (dis)empowerment
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Thank You...!
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions “traditionally disenfranchised groups become aware of the forces that oppress them and take action against them by changing the conditions in which they live and work (...) not merely [through] participation, but often [through] resistance to, and conflict with, the governance structures” (Hardy & Leiba-O´Sullivan, 1998: 468-469)
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Psychology: Intrinsic Motivation Intrinsic versus extrinsic task motivation Task assesments –Choice –Impact –Meaning –Competence Interpretative Styles –Attribution –Evaluation –Envisioning Empowerment versus “Participation”
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Organisation Empowerment, Efficiency Bosses versus workers, disenfranchised groups Societal System System Innovation, Sustainability Regimes versus niches, civil society versus government Differences Empowerment & Transition Management
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Power = the capacity to mobilise resources Conditions to exercise power: 1.access to resources 2.methods to mobilise them 3.competences to apply those methods 4.willingness to do so Empowerment = actors attaining access to resources, methods, competences & willingness Leadership = influencing the willingness of actors to exercise power to reach a certain goal
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Resources = persons, assets, material or capital ResourceContent Monetaryfunds, cash and financial stock Organisationalorganisations, human leverage and connections Mentalinformation, knowledge, ideas and beliefs Artefactualapparatuses, products, construction and infrastructure Naturalraw materials, the four elements, space and organic life
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Typology of Power Power = the capacity to mobilise resources => logical to distinguish different types of power in terms of the different ways in which one can ´mobilise` resources, and the different levels at which one can do so. => two dimensions: –1) the nature of mobilisation; constructive versus deconstructive, –2) the object of mobilisation; resources versus the distribution of resources. Within these dimensions, four ´ideal` types of power are defined, as well as the sum of all these types of power put together.
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions NATURE OF MOBILISATION LEVEL OF MOBILISATION SYSTEMIC POWER ResourcesDistribution of Resources ConstructiveInnovative PowerConstitutive Power DeconstructiveDestructive PowerTransformative Power
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Type of PowerType of mobilisation of resources Systemic PowerCapacity to mobilise resources for the survival of a societal system Constitutive Power Capacity to constitute the distribution of resources Innovative PowerCapacity to create or discover new resources Destructive Power Capacity to destroy or annihilate resources Transformative Power Capacity to transform the distribution of resources
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Hypothesis The transition (management) model can empower actors by reframing their conceptualisation of ‘having power’ and ‘exercising leadership’. Such re- conceptualisation can occur through: 1) integrating new concepts of power, empowerment and leadership with transition theory 2) making concepts of power, empowerment and leadership context-specific by 3) using a systemic transition analysis of a specific societal system to provide actors with a sense of overview and insight in the spatial and temporal dimensions of the system in relation to the power dynamics and possibilities for empowerment.
Instrumental Structural Discursive Categories, Debates, Definitions... Pluralists versus Elitists 3 Faces of Power Dahl Bachrach & Baratz Lukes System-structure-agent Luhmann Foucault Giddens Distributive versus Collective Authorative versus Diffused Parsons Mann Synthesis Multi-level Luhmann + Foucault Foucault + Arendt Empowerment Social Power
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Problem of Power & Positivism Dependent and independent variables Cause & effect, decisive factors, effect A on B When applied to power you get questions on the “influence of influence on influence” Never-ending agent-structure debates Result: a gap between philosophy & applied studies Analytical and epistomological frameworks to “operationalise” a concept that has lost a philosophical meaning...
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Relations of Power Two distinct sorts of ´relations of power`; 1) person A exercises power ´over` person B 2) person A has or exercises ´more` or ´less` or an ´equal amount` of power in comparison to person B One relation does not necessarily lead to the other. If A has ´more power` in comparison to B, it does not necessarily mean that A has power or control ´over` B. If A has power over B, it does not automatically follow that A has more power then B in absolute terms.
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Resistance to Power Distinction between dominance and resistance is confusing => the resisting side can also be ´dominant´ Both sides of any power struggle may be ´dominant`, depending on the context. All forms of power can resist one another from being exercised and they can also enable and enforce each other
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Methods & Competences Different for each type of power / resource Context-specific empirical question E.g. Constitutive power: laws, rules op the game, tradition, authority, formality, conformity etc. E.g. innovative power: experimentation, improvisation, alternative culture, entrepeneurship, creativity etc.
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Type of PowerMethodsCompetences of Actors Systemic Power Self-organisation through actors and institutions within the system Awareness about system’s environment Reflectivity Long-term & strategic thinking Constitutive Power Authority, formality, normalisation E.g: physical force (defensive), law, rules, contracts, ideology, propaganda, culture, tradition, disciplinary training etc. Authorative writing & speaking Disciplinary expertise, e.g. legal, financial, administrative etc. Personify formality Speaking ‘jargon’ of institutions Innovative Power Experiments Informal processes New organisations New culture Entrepreneurial spirit Creativity Improvisation Inspiration & motivation Drawing attention Destructive Power Physical force (offensive): military, weapons, prison Financial & legal force: bankruptcy, abolishment, prohibition Verbal force: protests, media Physical & mental strength Ability to work with weapons Debating tactics: capacity to criticise, insult and ridicule Rationalising need for force Transformative PowerTechnological & organisational innovations (New) networks Political action against status quo: parliament, protests, media attention New legal systems New strategies Ability to combine authorative and innovative strategies Ability to switch between formal and informal processes Ability to translate long-term into short-term thinking & visa versa Lobbying &Networking Rationalising need for change
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Situations of Power Power ´Plenum´: all forms of power are exercised, mutually enabling systemic power, i.e. ´survival of the system´. Power ´Vacuum´: societal system is confronted with a contingency while actors cannot mobilise the necessary resources to deal with this Power vacuum allows structural, radical change Power is NOT ´ubiquitous´ Power vaccuums occur all the time... Power is not just a matter between actors and structures, as laws of nature can cause contingencies and subsequent power vacuums
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Power Knowledge Knowledge about power dynamics in a societal system Power knowledge is a necessary condition for empowerment and leadership Property of “meta-network” = network in wich actors that oversee certain subsystems come together & form overview of power dynamics in the societal system as a whole
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Re-conceptualisation of Power Demystification without reduction of complexity Acknowledges that power is an interdisciplinary and context-specific empirical research question Combines different approaches, depending on different resources & different forms of power (e.g. Foucault, Hajer, Latour) Allows us to make different modes of power explicit in interdisciplinary fields such as sustainability studies and integrated assesment Power impedes AND enables change, depending on dynamics in and around societal system
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Beyond ´is´versus ´ought to be´ It is NOT not about proving how power relations are exactly at a certain point in time......nor about deciding how relations of power should be In transition studies we want to understand how and what relations of power could be
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Transition Concepts in Terms of Power Transition = a long term process in which deconstructive and constructive forms of power are exercised in such a way that old resources are replaced with new resources and a new distribution of resources is established Transition Management = leadership and empowerment influencing the direction of a transition process
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Levels in Transition TheoryPower Exercised Macro-levelLandscapeSystemic Power Meso-levelRegimeConstitutive Power Niche-RegimeTransformative Power Micro-levelNicheInnovative and/or Destructive Power Multi-level in Terms of Power (1)
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Multi-level in Terms of Power (2) LandscapeThe space in which systemic power is exercised RegimeA set of institutions and actors exercising constitutive power NichesA group of actors exercising innovative and / or destructive power Niche-regimesA group of actors exercising transformative power
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Transition PhasesWhat happens in terms of PowerTransition Level Starting PointAnticipation of a power vacuum = the need for new resources is acknowledged System / Landscape PredevelopmentInnovative + destructive power is exercised = new resources created, old resources destroyed Niches Take-offPower vacuum occurs(multiple patterns) AccelerationTransformative power is exercised = old resources are replaced by new resources + existing resources are redistributed Niche Regimes StabilisationConstitutive power is exercised = A (new) distribution of resources in constituted New Regime Multi-phase in Terms of Power (2)
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Transition Management in Terms of Empowerment & Leadership Transition management = enabling systemic power = combining innovative, destructive, constitutive and transformative power to safeguard the well-being of a societal system = anticipating “power vacuums” Transition management = empowerment = the transmission of resources, methods and competences to actors so that they collectively can exercise systemic power Transition management = leadership = influencing the willingness of actors to exercise (different forms of) power to reach a certain goal ( = transition to sustainability)
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Transition Management is EMPOWERING......niche-actors to exercise innovative power = creating new resources, including new ideas on the future, new organisations and new technologies....niche-actors to exercise destructive power = getting rid of old ideas, practices and technologies that impede sustainability.... niche-regime-actors to exercise transformative power = replacing old resources with new resources, through upscaling innovations, spreading out new ideas, challenging regimes, networking & lobbying for change.... regime-actors to exercise constitutive power by setting agenda´s for sustainability, formulating new laws and rules of the game, subsidising projects and programmes, establishing a new and more stable regime
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Transition Arena Transition Scenarios Transition Paths Transition Agenda Transition Experiments Experimental Gardens Transition Monitoring Transition Management offers methods of Empowerment:
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Transition Management & Leadership Strategic leadership = convincing actors to (collectively) enable systemic power Tactical leadership = convincing regime-actors to exercise constitutive power Operational leadership = convincing niche-actors to exercise innovative and / or destructive power Transformative leadership = convincing niche- actors and regime-actors to (come together and) exercise transformative power Transition management = combining all 4 forms of leadership to reach a transition goal (e.g. Sustainability)
TD LEVEL TM LEVELWho empowers & leads Who is empower & lead To exercise what type of power Method of empowerment Micro1. StrategicMeta-NetworkInnovation Network Innovative Meta-information + Transition Arena Micro2. StrategicInnovation Network Arena-members Innovative + Destructive Transition scenarios Micro Meso 3. Tactical Arena-members Regime-actors Niche-actors Constitutive Innovative Transition paths Transtion agenda Micro Meso 4. OperationalNiche-regime actors Arena-members + Regime-actors Transformative Transition experiments Micro Meso 5. Strategic All actors in TM-Network All actors in TM-Network Constitutive + Transformative Transition Monitoring Macro6. MetaTM-networkSystemSystemicTransition Management
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions PowerCapacity to mobilise resources (in such a way that it affects other actors) Systemic PowerCapacity to mobilise resources for the survival of a societal system Structural PowerCapacity to constitute resources and / or the distribution thereof Innovative PowerCapacity to create or discover new resources Constitutive PowerCapacity to destroy or annihilate resources Transformative PowerCapacity to transform and / or replace resources and / or the distribution thereof Power VacuumA situation in which a contingency impedes the exercise of systemic power EmpowermentTransmission of resources, methods and competences necessary to exercise power LeadershipInfluence on the willingnes of other actors to exercise power to reach a specific goal LandscapeThe space in which systemic power is exercised RegimeA set of institutions and actors exercising structural power NichesA group of actors exercising innovative and / or destructive power Niche-regimesA group of actors exercising transformative power TransitionA long-term process in which relations of power are structurally altered Transition ManagementLeadership and empowerment influencing direction of a transition process
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions “Transitional Power” Interaction between different forms of power exercised at the right moment, the right place and with the right amount of force. A social force equal to natural force of resonance. Depends on the internal momentum & dynamics of a societal system. It is multi-level, multi-phase and context- specific.
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions Thank You...!