Presentation on theme: "FOUR KEY TERMS exceptional children includes all children whose physical attributes and/or learning abilities differ from the norm (either below or above)"— Presentation transcript:
FOUR KEY TERMS exceptional children includes all children whose physical attributes and/or learning abilities differ from the norm (either below or above) to such an extent that an individualized program of adapted, specialized education is required to meet their needs disability reduced function or loss of a particular body part or organ which limits the ability to perform certain tasks (e.g., to see, hear, walk) in the same way that most nondisabled persons do; impairment is often used interchangeably handicap the problems a person with a disability or impairment encounters in interacting with the environment; a disability may pose a handicap in one environment but not in another at risk children who, while not currently identified as having a disability, are considered to have a greater-than-usual chance of developing a disability T 1.1 W. L. Heward, Exceptional Children, 6e, 2000 by Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.
POSSIBLE BENEFITS OF LABELING W Recognizes meaningful differences in learning or behavior and is a first and necessary step in responding responsibly to those differences. W May lead to a "protective" response in which children are more accepting of the atypical behavior by a peer with disabilities. W Helps professionals communicate with one another and classify and evaluate research findings. W Funding and resources for research and other programs is often based on specific categories of exceptionality. W Enables disability-specific advocacy groups to promote specific programs and to spur legislative action. W Helps make exceptional children's special needs more visible to policy makers and the public. T 1.2 W. L. Heward, Exceptional Children, 6e, 2000 by Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.
POSSIBLE DISADVANTAGES OF LABELING Because labels usually focus on disability, impairment, and performance deficits, others may think only in terms of what the individual cannot do instead of what he or she can or might be able to learn to do. Labels may stigmatize the child and lead peers to reject or ridicule the labeled child. Labels may negatively affect the child's self-esteem. May cause others to hold low expectations for and to differentially treat a child based on the label, which may result in a self-fulfilling prophecy. Labels that describe a child's performance deficit often mistakenly acquire the role of explanatory constructs (e.g., "Sherry acts that way because she is emotionally disturbed."). Even though membership in a given category is based on a particular characteristic (e.g., hearing loss), there is a tendency to assume that all children in a category share other traits as well, thereby diminishing the detection and appreciation of each child's uniqueness. T 1.3 W. L. Heward, Exceptional Children, 6e, 2000 by Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.
POSSIBLE DISADVANTAGES OF LABELING (con’t) WLabels suggest that learning problems are primarily the result of something wrong within the child, thereby reducing the systematic examination of and accountability for instructional variables as the cause of performance deficits. WSpecial education labels have a certain permanence; once labeled, it is difficult for a child to ever again achieve the status of simply being just another kid. WLabels may provide a basis for keeping children out of the regular classroom. WClassifying exceptional children requires the expenditure of a great amount of money and professional and student time that might better be spent in planning and delivering instruction. T 1.4 W. L. Heward, Exceptional Children, 6e, 2000 by Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.
SIX MAJOR PRINCIPLES OF IDEA 1. Zero reject Schools must educate all children with disabilities. The principle applies regardless of the nature or severity of the disability; no child may be excluded from a public education. 2. Nondiscriminatory identification and evaluation Schools must use nonbiased, multifactored methods of evaluation to determine whether a child has a disability and, if so, whether special education is needed. 3. Free, appropriate public education (FAPE) All children with disabilities must be provided an appropriate education at public expense. An individualized education program (IEP) must be developed and implemented for each student with a disability. 4. Least restrictive environment (LRE) Students with disabilities must be educated with children without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate. 5. Due process safeguards Schools must provide safeguards to protect the rights of children with disabilities and their parents. 6. Parent and student participation and shared decision making Schools must collaborate with parents and students with disabilities in the design and implementation of special education services. T 1.5 W. L. Heward, Exceptional Children, 6e, 2000 by Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.
AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) Extends civil rights protection to persons with disabilities in private sector employment, all public services, public accommodation, transportation, and telecommunications. A person with a disability is defined in the ADA as a person: (1) with a mental or physical impairment that substantially limits that person in a major life activity (e.g., walking, talking, working, self-care); (2) with a record of such an impairment (e.g., a person who no longer has heart disease but who is discriminated against because of that history); or (3) who is regarded as having such an impairment (e.g., a person with significant facial disfiguration due to a burn who is not limited in any major life activity but is discriminated against). T 1.6 W. L. Heward, Exceptional Children, 6e, 2000 by Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.
SPECIAL EDUCATION AS INTERVENTION Successful interventions prevent, eliminate, and/or overcome the obstacles that might keep a child or adult with disabilities from full and active participation in school and society. There are three basic kinds of intervention efforts: Preventive Intervening to keep potential or minor problems from becoming a disability (e.g., early intervention for at-risk preschool children) Remedial Eliminating the effects of the disability through instruction (e.g., teaching skills for independent functioning to a child with disabilities) Compensatory Teaching the use of skills or devices that enable successful functioning in spite of the disability (e.g., orientation and mobility instruction for a child without vision) T 1.7 W. L. Heward, Exceptional Children, 6e, 2000 by Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.