Presentation on theme: "ENGLISH TERMINOLOGY EXPLAINED. MAJOR FORMS OF LITERATURE Novel- a fictitious prose (sequence) narrative (account) of book length, typically representing."— Presentation transcript:
MAJOR FORMS OF LITERATURE Novel- a fictitious prose (sequence) narrative (account) of book length, typically representing character and action with some degree of realism. Poem-a piece of writing that partakes of the nature of both speech and song that is nearly always rhythmical, usually metaphorical, and often exhibits such formal elements as meter, rhyme, and “stanzaic” structure. Drama- a play for theater, radio, or television. Short story- a story with a fully developed theme but significantly shorter and less elaborate than a novel. Novella- a short novel or long short story.
CLASSIC MAJOR GENRES OF LITERATURE Romance Tragedy Comedy Satire- the use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize people's stupidity or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other topical issues. Drama- stories composed in verse or prose where conflicts and emotion are expressed through dialogue and action
COMMON FICTION GENRES Drama Fable Fairy Tale Fantasy Folklore Historical fiction Horror Humor Legend Mystery
COMMON FICTION GENRES CONT. Myth Poetry Realistic fiction Science fiction Short story Tall tale
COMMON NONFICTION GENRES Biography/ Autobiography- Narrative of a person's life. A true story about a real person. Essay-A short literary composition that reflects the author's outlook or point. Narrative nonfiction- Factual information presented in a format which tells a story. Speech- public address
EXPOSITORY VS. PERSUASION Expository Writing- written to explain information about something or someone. “You” and “I” should not be used in them. Persuasion Writing- written to persuade or convince a person to take action to something, such as buy an item or protest against or for something.
POINT OF VIEW Point of view- the perspective from which the story is told. First-person point of view is in use when a character narrates the story with I-me-my-mine in his or her speech. Second-person point of view, in which the author uses you and your, is rare; authors seldom speak directly to the reader. Third-person point of view is that of an outsider looking at the action. third-person omniscient: when the thoughts of every character are open to the reader, third-person limited: when the reader enters only one character's mind, either throughout the entire work or in a specific section.
LITERARY ELEMENTS/ FIGURES OF SPEECH Personification- technique of giving a non-human thing human qualities Rhyme-correspondence of sound between words Simile- comparison between two unlike things, using a connector word such as “like” or “as” Onomatopoeia- “sound” words Imagery- language that appeals to the senses Symbol- something that stands for itself and something beyond itself Metaphor- comparison between two unlike things that does not use a connector word Alliteration- repetition of the same or very similar consonant sounds
LITERARY ELEMENTS CONT. Oxymoron- A figure of speech in which apparently contradictory terms appear in conjunction Examples: bitter sweet, fast turtle, only choice, etc. Hyperbole- the use of exaggeration as a rhetorical device or figure of speech. It may be used to evoke strong feelings, but is not meant to be taken literally Examples: The bag weighed a ton I died laughing Analogy- Comparison made between TWO things to show HOW they are related. Example: Doctors perform surgery just as singers perform music. Example: Dog is to puppy as cat is to kitten. Euphemism- a mild or pleasant word or phrase that is used instead of one that is unpleasant or offensive Example: correctional facility instead of jail
CONFLICT Conflict- a struggle between opposing forces or characters. Internal Conflict- a struggle that takes place entirely within a character’s own mind. External Conflict- a struggle between a character and an outside force. The outside force could be another character, or society as a whole, or something in nature.
IRONY Irony- Contrast between expectation and reality Verbal irony- A writer of speaker says one thing but really means something completely different. Situational irony- When there is a contrast between what would seem appropriate and what really happens. Dramatic Irony- When the reader or audience knows something important that the character does not.