Presentation on theme: "The Legacy of Racism In the Golden Age of Cartoons The Censored Eleven The Warner Bros. Cartoons No Longer In Distribution."— Presentation transcript:
The Legacy of Racism In the Golden Age of Cartoons The Censored Eleven The Warner Bros. Cartoons No Longer In Distribution
Racism 1. A belief or doctrine that inherent differences among the various human races determine cultural or individual achievement, usually involving the idea that one's own race is superior and has the right to rule others. 2. A policy, system of government, etc., based upon or fostering such a doctrine; discrimination. 3. Hatred or intolerance of another race or other races.
Prejudice 1.An unfavorable opinion or feeling formed beforehand or without knowledge, thought, or reason. 2.Any preconceived opinion or feeling, either favorable or unfavorable. 3.Unreasonable feelings, opinions, or attitudes, especially of a hostile nature, regarding a racial, religious, or national group.
Parody A literary or artistic work that imitates the characteristic style of an author or a work for comic effect or ridicule.
Caricature A pictorial, written, or acted representation of a person that exaggerates his characteristic traits for comic effect.
A Thought Experiment
Imagine a change in history. Africans colonize the Americas. They take Europeans as slaves and make them work in the fields of the south. Eventually there is a civil war and the whites are freed. However, they are treated as second class citizens. An animation company staffed by black animators create a character, who is a parody of white males.
Elmer Fudd A caricature of a certain type of white male. Is this an offensive character?
Fat Albert & The Cosby Kids (TV series ran from ) Are these offensive characters? Written and Produced by Bill Cosby
American Music is Shaped by Black Musicians Minstrel Spirituals Blues Jazz Gospel Rhythm & Blues Rock & Roll Rap
Minstrel show performers Rollin Howard and George Griffin, circa The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, was an American entertainment consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music, performed by white people in blackface or, especially after the Civil War, black people in blackface. Minstrel shows lampooned black people. Minstrel Show
Bert Williams was the only black member of the Ziegfeld Follies when he joined them in Shown here in blackface, he was the highest-paid African American entertainer of his day
Al Jolson In the 1920s and 30s, Al Jolson was America’s most popular and highest paid singer and actor. He appeared in the first sound film The Jazz Singer (1927)
Jazz Singer Al Jolson Sings “Mammy” in blackface in The Jazz Singer (1927). This movie is the first “talkie” that ends the silent film era.
Jim Crow Laws
World War II
Japanese Internment Japanese American internment was the relocation and internment by the United States government in 1942 of about 110,000 Japanese Americans and Japanese who lived along the Pacific coast of the United States to camps called "War Relocation Camps," in the wake of Imperial Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor. 62% were American citizens.
Propaganda Information, esp. of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a particular political cause or point of view. The dissemination of such information as a political strategy. Propaganda is used to redefine people in strategic ways to support a cause. The goal is to demonize the enemy.
Propaganda American anti-Japanese imagery from World War II
Nazi Propaganda Left: Nazi propaganda posters against “Degenerate Music” “Settlement of one state.” Center: “The Jew warmongers laughed at prolonged war.” Right: “The Eternal Jew”
A scene that is now edited out of Disney’s Fantasia showing a black centaur as a servant to a white centaur. Every major animation studio made films that contained imagery that was, at best racially insensitive, and at worst blatantly racist. Bigoted Stereotypes
Censored Eleven Warner Bros cartoons pulled from distribution in Sunday Go to Meetin' Time (1936) Friz Freleng All This and Rabbit Stew (1941) Tex Avery featuring a character named Inki. He was a main character in five films from 1939 to Angel Puss (1944) Chuck Jones
Censored Eleven TitleYearDirector 1.Hittin' the Trail for Hallelujah Land(1931) Rudolf Ising 2.Sunday Go to Meetin' Time (1936) Friz Freleng 3.Clean Pastures (1937) Friz Freleng 4.Uncle Tom's Bungalow (1937) Tex Avery 5.Jungle Jitters (1938) Friz Freleng 6.The Isle of Pingo Pongo1938, 1944 (reissue)Tex Avery 7.All This and Rabbit Stew(1941) Tex Avery 8.Coal Black and de Sebben Dwarfs (1943) Robert Clampett 9.Tin Pan Alley Cats (1943)Robert Clampett 10.Angel Puss (1944)Chuck Jones 11.Goldilocks and the Jivin' Bears 1944, 1951 (reissue) Friz Freleng
Coal Black and de Sebben Dwarfs Clampett was a fan of Jazz.
Tin Pan Alley Cats Features a Fats Waller ( ) caricature. Waller was a jazz pianist, organist, composer, singer, and comedic entertainer.
Movies to watch Watch Any Bonds Today (1:32)Any Bonds Today Designed to promote sales of war bonds. Note Bugs Bunny in Al Jolson blackface at end. Watch Tin Pan Alley CatsTin Pan Alley Cats Fats Waller parody Watch Coal Black and de Sebbin DwarfsCoal Black and de Sebbin Dwarfs Snow White parody