Presentation on theme: "Public Relations: A Management Function"— Presentation transcript:
1Public Relations: A Management Function Instructor: Mr. T. G. Mokgosi
2Topic 1: Defining Public Relations Public Relations is the deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between on organization and its publics.2. Public relations is the management function that establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and the publics on whom its success or failure depends.
33. Public Relations is distinctive management function which helps establish and maintain mutual lines of communication, under-standing, acceptance and cooperation between an organization and its publics.
4WHAT DOES PRS’ DEFINATION SUGGEST? Public Relations is the management of problems or issuesKeeps management informed on public opinionDefines and emphasises responsibility of management to serve public interestHelps management keep abreast of and effectively utilise change
5Serve as early warning system to help anticipate trends Use research and sound ethical communication techniques as its principal tools
6PublicsPublics can be internal or external. A public is a group of people who share interests or concerns, affected by, and affecting organisation or its actions. May be latent/passive
7How Does Public Relations Earn Public Understanding and Acceptance? Public relations forms, builds and maintains relationships between an organization and its publics by finding common interests. Failures usually stem from communication breakdowns.
8What is the Social Significance of the Practice of Public Relations? Growth and trends in business created the conditions for the public relations profession to develop.
9Typical 12 Functions of Public Relations 1. Trusted counsel—advise and anticipate 2.Internal communication—engage employees and build trust 3. Media relations—develop public trust and support 4. Community relations—establish public trust and support 5. External communication to customers/ stakeholders/ investors, etc.—build public trust and support
106. Research and strategise 7. Plan8. Implement, execute and communicate9. Evaluate10. Publicity and special events11. Issues management12. Crisis communication
11public relations Primary functions To control publicsTo direct what people think or do in order to satisfy the needs and wants of an organisationTo respond to publics, reacting to developments, problems or initiatives of othersTo achieve mutually beneficial relationships among publics by fostering harmonious interchange
12Public Relations Law and Ethics General Principles Underlying Public Relations PracticeAct in the public interest.Find the greater good for the majority of the people.2. Use honesty and integrity as your guide.
133. Ensure accuracy and truth. Do not disseminate false and misleading information.If you accidentally do make an error, correct it immediately with all audiences.4. Deal fairly with all publicsRespect yourself and respect others.When you move to a new position, leave proprietary materials related to your old job behind.
14More Specific Principles Defining How Public Relations is Practiced Accurately define what public relations strategies and tactics can accomplish.Do not guarantee results for areas beyond your control.Maintain the integrity of communication channels.Ensure transparency with all audiences, from employees to external publics.Maintain ethical relationships with government, regulatory agencies, media, colleagues and all audiences.
15Safeguard confidences. Build trust through protection of confidential information.Secure the privacy of organization and individuals.Do not damage the reputation of others.Be careful during agency pitches.Stick to the facts and avoid the gossip.
16Avoid conflicts of interest. Disclose interests of yourself and others.Get consent to represent conflicting views or competitors; maintain the related knowledge in two different areas.Be ready to publicly identify your clients, sources of information, etc.
17Decision-Making Process Here are the steps in the ethics decision-making process:Define the specific ethical issue or conflict.Identify internal and external factors (legal, political, social, economic) that may influence the decision.Identify the key values.
18Identify the audiences who will be affected by the decision and define the public relations professional’s obligation to each.Select ethical principles to guide your decision-making process.Make your decision and justify it.
191. Define the specific ethical issue or conflict. Is it ethical to disseminate deceptive information regarding the financial condition of my company on which a number of key publics may rely?
20Do state laws require a particular decision or disclosure? 2. Identify internal and external factors (legal, political, social, economic) that may influence the decision.Do state laws require a particular decision or disclosure?What do company values, policies and/or procedures require?
213. Identify the key values. Loyalty—As a professional, commitment to your employer often comes before other obligations.Advocacy—As a responsible advocate, consider both the company’s interests and the interests of the publics that may be affected by the decision.
22Honesty—Consider obligations to tell the truth in advancing the company’s interest and in communicating to the public.Independence—Retain objectivity in counseling the employers on a course of action that is in the company’s best interest both today and into the future.
234. Identify the audiences who will be affected by the decision and the PR professional’s obligation to each.Consider the company/employer, board of directors, shareholders/ potential shareholders, government, financial analysts, financial media, employees, publics, profession, society, other stakeholders.
245. Select ethical principles to guide your decision-making process. Protecting and advancing the free flow of accurate and truthful information is essential to serving the public interest and contributing to informed decision making.Maintaining the integrity of relationships with media and government regulatory agencies is central to public relations practice and in the best interest of the greater public.Truth and accuracy are underpinnings of our profession.
256. Make your decision and justify it. The public relations professional’s greatest loyalty is typically to the client/employer; you are obligated to provide counsel and communications support that serves the best interest of the organization.At the same time, responsible advocacy requires that the interests of those affected by the decision be considered as well.In this case, numerous publics could both rely on this information and be adversely affected.
26Laws for Public Relations Professionals Copyright law: Two major goals of copyright laws are to protect the original creator of the work and to provide economic incentive for new knowledge.The statutory definition expresses that copyright exists in “original works of authorship in any tangible medium of expression. . . from which they can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated”.
27Any written sources that are not original should be cited in following works. In addition, Internet references also should adhere to traditional copyright procedures for securing appropriate permissions and/or indicate proper citations.
28Common law copyrightAn author who creates a tangible expression of his or her ideas immediately acquires common law copyright of the work.This right continues until the author dedicates work to the public by a general publication, or surrenders common law right to obtain specific statutory copyright protection.
29The purpose of copyright law is to protect an author’s intellectual production. The dividing line between common law copyright and statutory copyright is publication.Statutory copyright is a legal word or act—the act by which the author makes the work available to the world while retaining control of the creative expression.
30Two types of publication 1. General publication is any overt act that indicates the intention to surrender one’s right to control one’s creative expression and allow the public to copy the material. If there is a general publication and the author has not obtained statutory copyright and does not use the copyright symbol, c, he has no further right to prevent the use by the public.
312. Limited publication, such as delivery of a manuscript to a possible purchaser, does not cause the author to lose any common law rights.
32Statutory copyrightTo obtain statutory copyright, an author must submit to the Library of Congress and display the copyright symbol c on the material.Creative expression of ideas is subject to copyright.Securing a statutory copyright is simple.Notice/use of the copyright symbol must be on the very first copy sold or publicity distributed.
33Ownership of copyright for photo graphy and artwork The contract between your organization and the non-employee who takes photos or creates artwork determines who owns the copyright.The copyright owner determines use and the cost of use of the creative work.
34Be clear about the ownership of both the negatives and hard copies of photos or artwork in the contract you develop with your legal counsel.The organization owns an employees’ work done on behalf of the organization.
35The law of DefamationDefamation is a statement of fact that is substantially false about someone who can be identified and that tends to injure that person’s reputation.Written or pictorial defamation is known as libel;spoken or verbal defamation is known as slander.
36To qualify as defamation, the statement must be untrue. To be defamed or damaged, an exposed person or organization must prove three conditions were present: hatred, contempt, ridicule.Damage must also be proven.Reports of official proceedings are privileged and cannot be charged with libel.
37To be actionable for libel, five elements must be present: defamation,identification,communications (publication/ broadcast),fault (malice or negligence), anddamage (in absence of fault ,provable damages or injury).Since a public figure puts himself or herself out before the public, actual malice must be proven by a public figure.
38Fair commentThis privilege insulates a reporter or publication against defamation (libel or slander).Not a license to circulate derogatory information, the information must be related to community interest with the subject.
39Fair comment is a recognized defense against a libel action, based on the argument that the statement was either true or privileged (taken from a public document).Be aware that although truth is the traditional defense against libel, truth is hard to prove.Fair comment, which involves privacy, should not be confused with fair use, which involves copyright.
40Four Libel Defences Truth, Privilege, Fair comment (all defined above) Retraction.Retraction is a full and prompt apology that helps mitigate damages.
41Fair UseThis law allows use or parts of copyrighted materials without violating copyright laws and without paying a royalty or fee when used for: criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship or research.Drawing the line as to what is fair use is one of the most difficult problems of copyright law.Fair use originally applied to printed works.
42With the advent of digital technology and the Internet, fair use now also applies to the redistribution of music, photographs, videos and software.Fair use is usually determined on the special facts of each case.If you begin to question how you’re using something or how much you’re using, be cautious.
43Public relations professionals should note that fair use does not apply to commercial use. Fair use that involves copyright should not be confused with fair comment that involves privacy.
44Intellectual property This legal term describes rights or entitlements that apply to the ownership and use of certain types of information, ideas or other concepts in an expressed form.
45The law of privacyThis law, important for public relations professionals to know, ensures an individual’s right to be left alone and can be violated if names, likeness, and/or information is used for commercial purposes.It differs from defamation and is a practical effort to protect the individual who does not relish the unexpected appearance of his or her picture, story or testimonial in the public media.
46The publication need only injure the feelings of the person, even though it may not have any effect on his or her reputation.Many violations evolve from advertising, which is deemed worse than articles because of the potential for direct profit.
47Securing permission from the individual protects the public relations professional. While use of employee photos in employee publications isn’t specifically covered, it is a good idea to protect your employees’ right of privacy by obtaining signed waivers.
48Four torts or, i.e., kinds of wrongful acts or damages, to privacy exist: Appropriation: Taking of some element of a person’s name or likeness for advertising or trade purposes without consent, such as using a celebrity’s photo without permission and signed releases.Intrusion: Invading a person’s solitude, such as taping without permission.
493. Public disclosure of embarrassing private facts: Truth is not necessarily a defense here (medical information, sex-crime victim identity, name of juvenile offender, embarrassing poses). Reputation need not be harmed.4. False light: Putting a person in a false position before the public, misleading the public to make a person appear other than he or she is (misrepresentation). Reputation need not be harmed.
50Slavish copyingThis term is used for extensive word-for-word copying. One can use the idea, but not the creative expression of the idea.For a violation, copying must be exact, word for word.Paraphrasing is not a violation, but without attribution, it does raise ethical concerns.Speeches quoting the ideas of another can lead to copyright violation.
51TOPIC 2: Scope of Public Relations Program planning. Analysing problems and opportunities, defining goals, recommendingWriting and editing. Reports, news releases, brochures, speeches, scripts, publicationsMedia relations. Developing and maintaining good working contact with mediaCorporate identity. Developing and maintaining organisation’s name, policies, reputation
525. Speaking. Communicating effectively with individuals and groups Production. Liaising and supervising contacts for production of brochures, reports, video, multi-media programs7. Training. Preparing executives and designated people in organisation to deal with the media and public appearances.8. Counselling. Advising top management on the social political and regulatory environment, how to avoid and respond to crisis, devise strategies
539. Special events. Organising functions such as news conferences, exhibitions, events, tours and meetings to gain attention and acceptance of groups of people.10. Research and evaluation. Gathering information to find out about existing attitudes or perceptions, before putting program of action in place and after activity undertaken, to see whether objectives have been achieved.
54Role of PR Practitioners Technicians. Provide services such as producing publications (e.g. news release and newsletter). Technicians hold lower positions within organisations than problem solvers.Problem solvers. Ask clients or senior management to rethink or clarify problems and to look for innovative solutions. Problem solvers belong to management, with responsibility for decision-making and policy formation. They are part of what is known as the dominant coalition of management.
55Public Relations, Marketing and Advertising ‘Advertising is visibility, public relations is credibility’.PR and marketing working together in a campaign would complement each other, both to improve sales and to create a longer-term position in the marketplace.PR objective is to use information to strengthen the bond between the organisation and the customer – not necessarily to increase sales-
56in the short term, but to engender loyalty, selling more by building commitment over the long term
57Propaganda and Public Relations PR is seen as ‘public persuasion through the mass media’What makes the principal demarcation between propaganda and public relations even more ironic is that, is the practice of propaganda which gave birth to the modern public relations industry.Engineering of consent and power to shape public opinionPublicity as a necessary and effective tool to soothe public hostility, either real or potential, toward business’
58PR: Writing the NewsProvide news media with an information subsidy using press releasesPR firms also flood newsrooms with VNRsHigh degree of material in news derived from handouts to the press56% of stories had begun life as news releases90% of news stories are ‘based on the calculated messages of the actors involved and 58.2 percent relied on information routinely supplied to journalists.Even quality press have a substantial debt to information subsidies from government PR sources.
59TOPIC 3: Public Relations Theory and the Management of Populations What is theory?Collections of thoughts and ideas that assist with understandingHelps explain relationshipCollections of thoughts and ideas start from certain assumptions
60Rely on what is known, or what is thought to be known, or what can be argued to be true. Competing theories in PR include different views about the nature of human activity and decision-making
61PR theories are NOT the different tasks defined and allocated in the conception, planning and execution of a PR activity, which are methodsMethods are models for how people might do thingsTheories are models for how people might think about things
62Communication Models and Theories Communication theories borrow from linguistics and more recently postmodernist philosophy.Contemporary theories involve how society and its individuals picture themselves and their world through shared message, wrapped up in all sorts of political and philosophical arguments about what sort of world we live in and what sort of society is possible.
63Agenda-Setting Theory The media have a significant influence on the public and can influence what people think.In other words, the media shape top-of-mind presence regarding issues.The agenda-setting process is a very fluid, dynamic attempt to get the attention of the media, the public, and/or policy-makers.
64The agenda is a “set of issues The agenda is a “set of issues.” In order for the agenda to be effective and become part of the process, it must be communicated. Agendas result from a “dynamic interplay.”Thus, in the agenda-setting process, an interplay results between three elements: the media, the public and the policy-makers.
65Each of these elements has an agenda Each of these elements has an agenda. Early research suggested this process was somewhat linear and directional.In other words, the media set their agenda, which influenced and set the public agenda, which influenced and set policy agenda.
66the importance of public relations to media agenda setting All the journalists in the world can observe only a small fraction of each day’s situations and events.Much of what we know, for example, about the workings of government and business from the international level on down to the local level originates with public information officers and other public relations practitioners who represent important news sources.
67These communication professionals subsidize the efforts of news organizations to cover the news by providing substantial amounts of organized information, frequently in the form of news releases prepared in the exact style of news stories.
68Diffusion TheoryThis theory stresses that the media are often involved at the awareness and interest phases while personal contacts are important for the evaluation and decision-making stages.This theory can help us know how to best communicate and diffuse an idea or product.
69The Diffusion Process1. Explains how people adopt or reject change, ideas or products. 2. Reveals why major change is not accomplished in a brief time. 3. Reveals why it cannot be accomplished through news media alone. 4. Emphasizes why channels of interpersonal communication are the most effective.
70Word of mouth is very important in diffusion. A public relations professional can execute the best media placement campaign of her or his career, but unless targeted audiences are talking about what they have read in the paper or seen on television, the diffusion process is stunted.
71five stages within the diffusion of innovation process 1. Awareness: An individual becomes aware of “it,” quite often through the media or mass communication channels. 2. Interest: An individual develops an interest in learning more about “it.” 3. Evaluation: An individual asks others for feedback about “it,” demonstrating the importance of interpersonal communication.
724. Trial: An individual uses a sample, attends a rally, etc. 5. Adoption: If adoption occurs, an individual may seek or respond to reinforcement of adoption decision. Some call this the retrial or re-adoption process.
73Publics and Public Opinion Identifying audiences, or publics, is one of the first steps in the planning phase of public relations programming.Typically, you identify the publics you want to reach after you’ve completed research about the opportunity, conducted a situation analysis and developed a problem statement.
74Equipped with this research, you then develop goals, identify the publics to be served, and write measurable objectives for each public.
75Publics” Defined for Public Relations Public relations professionals refer to people or groups of “people who are somehow mutually involved or interdependent with particular organizations” as “publics".A public may also further defined as “a particular group of people with a common interest, aim, etc.”
76The Public Opinion Process Grunig, in his work on communication behaviours and attitudes of environmental publics, further defined publics by type. He found that publics can be grouped by the way they behave toward messages and issues, and identified four types.
77All-issue publics: who are active on all issues Apathetic publics: who are inattentive and inactive on all issuesSingle-issue publics: who are active on a limited number of issuesHot-issue publics: who respond and become active after being exposed to an issue.These types of publics are important to the process of public opinion formation because influencing each of them will require different tactics.
78Lang and Lang observed that in any given situation, there is an existing mass sentiment or a general social consensus.At different times, people have different views about issues and, as Grunig points out, they become a type of public that will respond to an issue in a specific way.
79Those who fall into the all-issue, single-issue (if the particular issue affects them), or hot-issue publics will take pro and con sides with an issue, leading to public and private debate.The public debate may include publicity, staged events, polls, appeals, etc., over a period of time.
80This leads people to make up their minds This leads people to make up their minds. A new public opinion develops, and that can lead to social action, which might occur in the form of an election, a consent decree or taking a product off the market.A new social value has emerged and becomes part of mass sentiment.The time it took for this new social value to take hold is significant.
81Theories of organisations and organisational communication Based on the notion of ‘systems’, this approach uses the way biological and electronic switching and signalling processes operate as a synonym for the ways society and its organisations regulate themselves.
82Systems theoryOpen and closed systems of communication where organisations were depicted as composed of subsystems– management, production departments, salespeople and the public relations office.This theory has a worrying implication: that, once set up, system will somehow automatically adjust itself and stay healthy forever.
83Risk management and conflict management Risk management theories presume that a wide spread of managers and employees of an organisation are best able to point to potential disasters or crises.Conflict management involves the analysis of opinions and attitudes people hold, social and personal factors, cognition of situation by different parties and the needs, in which the conflict arose and considerable psychological, historical and intuitive theorising of the cause.Decisions after analysis is made on collaboration, mediation or arbitration for resolution.
84Specialist theories of public relations Public relations as an important role to play in the ethical management of society and its organisations, fulfilled if there is equal and open exchange and respect between organisations and their publics.
85Press agentry/publicity model: aims to ‘publicise the organisation, its products and its services in any way possible’. Examples are blatant stunts.Public information model: seeks to ‘disseminate information to the public as truthfully and accurately as possible’. Examples are posters and leaflets.
86Two-way asymmetric model: aims to ‘persuade the public to agree with the organisation’s point of view, where feedback is used ‘to determine what the public’s attitudes are toward the organisation and how they might be changed’
87Two-way symmetric model: is utilised when an organisation wants to ‘develop a mutual understanding between the management of the organisation and the publics that the organisation affects’. An example is the engagement of positive discussion between the organisation and its publics to derive a mutual proposition.
88Press agentry/ publicity model and public information model: use one-way communication, dedicated to ‘help the organisation control the publics that affect it’
89Two-way asymmetric and two-way symmetric models: use two-way communication, but communication flow in two-way asymmetric is greater from the organisation to its publics, while in two-way symmetric, communication flow is considered equal.
90Situational theory: Emphasises the practitioner’s need to look closely at the way people make up their minds about a matter affecting or potentially affecting them. The theory suggests that people reflect on a situation only if they realise that it affects them before they start on a sequence of activity.
91TOPIC 4: Media Relations Media relations is synonymously used with publicity, an important function of PR.PR has become one of the most important external influences on journalism as it is now practised.
92Twelve Values to Generating News 1. FREQUENCY—Events that unfold conveniently within the production cycle of a news outlet are more likely to be reported. 2. THRESHOLD—The larger the event, the more people it affects, the more likely it is to be reported. Events can meet the threshold criterion either by being large in absolute terms, or by marking an increase in the intensity of an ongoing issue. 3. UNAMBIGUITY—The fewer ways there are of interpreting an event, the more likely it is to be reported.
934. MEANINGFULNESS—The more culturally proximate and/or relevant an event is, the more likely it is to be reported.5. CONSONANCE—If a journalist has a mental pre-image of an event, if it’s expected to happen, then it is more likely to be reported. This is even more true if the event is something the journalist desires to happen.
946. UNEXPECTEDNESS—If an event is unexpected, it is more likely to be considered newsworthy and to be reported. 7. CONTINUITY—Once an issue has made the news once, future events related to it are more likely to be reported. 8. COMPOSITIONAL BALANCE- An event that contributes to the diversity of topics reported is more likely to be covered than one that adds to a pile of similar news items.
959. ELITE NATIONS—Events that involve elite nations are more likely to be reported than those that do not. 10. ELITE PEOPLE—Events that involve elite people are more likely to be reported than those that do not. 11. PERSONIFICATION—Events that can be discussed in terms of the actions of individual actors are more likely to be reported than those that are the outcome of abstract social forces. 12. NEGATIVITY—An event with a negative outcome is more likely to be reported than one with a positive outcome.
96Relations with MediaGet to know your media – who writes for which areaDecide what news is – names, money, impactDo not use jargonNews releaseNever suggest to a journalist or photographer that you have a good story or pictureNever say ‘No comment’, always say, ‘I need to check some details before I get back’Don’t avoid the issue
97Do not be frightened by foot-in-the-door television Politely ask journalists their names and use them
98Key Points to Remember in News Releases Focus on 5Ws and H in early part of storyUse inverted pyramidUse letterheads where possibleDate your releaseIndicate it is a releaseWrite a headlineUse active languageLeave sufficient margins to allow annotations
99Write ‘more’ or ‘ends’ on the bottom of page one Include contact information, including after-hours contactAdhere to journalistic styleMake sure story is newsworthy and appropriate to media outlet
100Use credible authority as source early in story Include photo opportunities or professionally taken photographsGet your story to the right person at the right timeProofread release before sendingDo not write a lead of more than 30 words
101Do not pad out your release – keep it succinct Do not expect your release to run verbatimDo not make statements that you cannot back upDo not send releases about non-newsworthy events even if you are pressured to do soDo not hound news editors about when they will run your storyDo not ask journalists why they did not run your story
102Why hold news conference? To allow wide dissemination of storyTo give all media access to the news at onceTo allow journalists to ask follow-up questions
103When to hold news conference? Ideally, proactively with plenty of time to plan, prepare and check that everything is in placeHowever, can be called in haste, especially in a crisis situation.
104six Scenarios appropriate for news conference Announcement of considerable importance to a large number of people in communityMatter of public concern that needs to be explainedReporters request for access to key individual and it is important to give all media equal access instead
105A new product or invention in public interest to be unveiled A person of importance arriving in town with many media requests for interviewsComplex issue or situation to be announced and media need access to someone to answer questions
106Using the MediaThe two main avenues to consider when planning the use of media for a PR program are advertising and publicity.
107AdvertisingAdvertising is used as an aspect of PR when a business, organisation, society wants to get a specific kind of promotional message across to one or more of its publicsAdvertising is favoured when business or organisation wants control over the timing, location and frequency of delivery of particular messages
108PR advertising is persuasive or partisan promotion. Seen as less ‘reliable’ than news reporting and other forms of publicity.
109PublicityIs free, but has no guarantee of control over publicity, although familiarity with medium and journalists can assist in providing some measure of controlNo control over what is said, when it is said, where it is said, why it is said or how often it will appear
110How to use the media Attempts to promote a favourable image Understand how various media functionApproach and deal with the mediaUse the mediaMaintain good relations with the media
111TOPIC 5: Research and Evaluation in Public Relations Research can be defined as ‘the process of finding out’.Research is also defined as ‘diligent or systematic inquiry or investigation into a subject in order to discover the facts or principles’.In Public Relations, this means inquiring about issues relevant to PR practice in a systematic manner.
112DefinitionsResearch in PR as ‘the systematic gathering of information to describe and understand situations and to check out assumptions about publics and public relations consequences”What research does in engaging PR’s relationships with their publics is to help define what information is missing and how existing information can be organised from the perspective of the receiver to ensure credibility
113Research is of strategic importance to public relations’ and ‘is only as good as the research that underlies it’.
114Importance of Research A necessary and integral part of planning, program development and evaluation process, accepted by most PR professionals.Research is largely talked about by PR than actually being done, although acknowledged as important.PR research mostly done by individuals trained in PR rather than by researchers.
115Usually casual and informal, rather than scientific and precise Measuring PR outcomes, impact, effectiveness in precise terms is next to impossibleMost PR research today is for planning of programs and activities, rather than for measuring and evaluating PR outcomes
116Research PurposesPlanning / developing a new PR program, strategy, or activityMonitoring / tracking PR activitiesMeasuring or evaluating outcomes, impact, or effectiveness of PR programsPublicity and promotional purposes (e.g. conducting a poll to use findings for publicity)Crisis
117The Use of Research Employee / management communication Marketing / product PRMedia relations / publicityCorporate image / identityIssues tracking and analysisCustomer relationsPublic affairs / government relationsCommunity relationsInstitutional advertisingInvestor / financial relations
118Research Techniques Publicity tracking / media monitoring Literature searches / information retrievalSurveys by phone or mailModel buildingMall intercept / shopping centre studiesCommunication auditsQualitative in-depth interviewsReadership / readability studiesData collection / analysis surveysObservation / participation / role-playing
119Research Considerations and Obstacles Lack of client / management understanding of PRCostsPoor understanding by some practitioners of the role of PRPractitioners’ inability to use research
120Types of Research Formative Research which feeds into the planning phase of the process.EvaluativeResearch which feeds into the evaluation of the success or failure of the process.
121Why and when is research used? Research revolves around understanding the environment within the organisation operations.Information required may include the needs or attitudes of target publics or stakeholders.The daily work of PR practitioner is based on understanding the ‘current situation’, knowing what needs to be done to address situation, what organisation could afford to do with available resources, determine the aims, goals and objectives of PR program.
122Step 1: Information gathering on organisation, such as, image, status, history, overview of previous campaigns, and a SWOTStep 2: Information on situationStep 3: Understanding opinions and attitudes of target group, examining existing evidence from records in organisation of evaluations on previous programs or campaigns
123Other models of research in PR process include: 1 Other models of research in PR process include: 1. ROPE: Research, Objectives, Programming, Evaluation 2. RACE: Research, Action, Communication, Evaluation
124Why is a research needed? An opportunity may exist where the attitude or behaviour of target public could be favourably influenced (proactive and avoid complex situations in future).Unfavourable situation may exist or have been created through previous campaigns (reactive remediating situation).
125Research MethodsFormal ResearchInformal Research
126Formal Research‘The systematic process of collecting and analyzing information (data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon with which we are concerned or interested’.‘The controlled, objective and systematic gathering of information for the purposes of describing and understanding’.In essence, formal research is a scientific approach to answering questions. Expensive and time-consuming, but is objective, credible and reliable.
127Two main methodologies of formal research Qualitative research uses ‘discovery-base methods’ to explore new aspects or delve further into a particular area. This form of research probes deeper and may sample a relatively small group of respondentsQualitative research is open to additional information and new insight, is descriptive and informative, but not often measurable. Its emphasis in on analysis and synthesis of information
128Quantitative research uses ‘verification-based methods’ to verify situations that the organisation may already be aware of, but without any information to substantiate these beliefs, thoughts, feelings or opinionsQuantitative research is generally described as confirmatory research and often results in mathematical analysis, as the data gathered are often based on either simple or complex statistical formulae
129a) Qualitative Research Techniques In-depth interviewsFocus groupsEthnographic studiesCase studiesQuantitative Research TechniquesSurveysOmnibus (or piggy-back) surveysContent analysis
130c) Survey ResearchSurvey research is the most frequently used mode of observation in social sciences and is from scientifically based surveys that statistics are drawn. Questionnaire delivery uses:MailTelephoneFace-to-faceFaxNewsletter
131Informal Research Environmental monitoring Public Relations audits Communication auditsMedia content analysisLibrariesElectronic databasesInterviewingDiariesCorporate communication archivesRecording of incoming phone callsTestimonials
132Formative and Evaluative Research Formative research is the research that goes into determining inputs and outputsEvaluative research is that which goes into defining outcomes
133Formative research provides the practitioner with a practical road map: indicating what problems or opportunities actually exist what the perceptions and beliefs of publics and audiences are what tools or methods of communication would be most effective in helping organisation achieve its PR objectives with those publics or audiences.
134Formative research informs strategy and planning. Evaluative research: indicates how successful the strategy embarked on actually is demonstrate how effective planning and communication have been allows the practitioner to fine-tune, alter or modify the program plan to achieve greater success with PR outcomes.
135Formative Research Techniques Analysis of existing dataBenchmark researchFocus group discussionPilot questionnairesCommunication auditsCase studies reviewExpert reviewPublic surveysNetwork analysis
136EvaluationDefining outcomes, impact and effectiveness of a PR program Definitions Evaluation is ‘the systematic assessment of a program and its results. It is a means for practitioners to offer accountability to clients – and to themselves’
137Evaluation talks about an orderly monitoring of progress to attain the specific objectives of the PR plan where what we did right or wrong is learnt, how much progress we’ve made, and most importantly, how we can do it better next time.
138Objectives of Evaluation The purpose of every PR program or activity is to achieve certain outcomes (objectives and goals)Evaluation ensures proper measurement of what has been achieved (or not), and that claims of success or failure can be supported with empirical evidence
139It also helps to justify the amount of money spent on PR and provides a basis for arguing for more fundingEvaluation research also documents the program success or failure.
140TOPIC 6: Planning a Public Relations Program Planning in PR is essentially about making the concrete decisions about what needs to be done and the order in which it will be done as a response to a particular situation or in anticipation to something that might occur in future.Through the process of strategic thinking, a strategic plan is laid out to provide a view of how future goals can be achieved.
141Two Main Types Planning Strategic planning: Where an organisation wants to go in PR termsProgram planning: What needs to be done in a specific PR situation or program
142Elements of a Strategic Plan Executive SummaryVision / MissionBackgroundSituation Analysis (SWOT)StrategyPublicsMain MessageTactics / Communication MethodsImplementation / Scheduling (Timing & Calendaring)Evaluation / Monitoring / AssessmentBudget
143Program PlanningBefore implementing a PR program or activity, it is essential to consider:What should be done?What sequence to accomplish the organisation’s objectives?
144Approaches to Planning ResearchAnalyseApplyAsking and answering many questions (MBO & Strategic Planning Model)
145Public Relations Management by Objective (MBO) Formulate a strategy that will accomplish organisation’s specific objective, focus and directing type of thinking.Using MBO in planning ensures the ‘production of relevant messages and establishes criteria against which campaign results can be measured’.
146nine Public Relations Management by Objectives steps Client / Employer ObjectivesAudience / PublicsAudience ObjectivesMedia ChannelsMedia Channel ObjectivesSources and QuestionsCommunication StrategiesEssence of MessageNonverbal Support
147Strategic Planning Model This approach contains 4 elements: facts, goals, audience and key message.1. FactsCategory – industry trendsProduct/Service Issues–significant characteristicsCompetitive Facts– who, what competitive strengths, similarities, differencesCustomer Facts – publics: who and why?
1482. GoalsBusiness Objectives – objectives and timeframeRole of PR – how PR fit in marketing mix?Sources of New Business – what sectors produce growth?3. AudienceTarget Audiences – audiences and their ‘hot’ buttons Current Mind-Set – audiences’ feeling about product, service, or issueDesired Mind-Set – how we want audiences to feel?4. Key MessageOne Key Message – conveyed to change or reinforce mindsets
149Elements of Program Plan SituationObjectivesAudienceStrategyTacticsCalendar/TimetableBudgetEvaluation
150a) Situation Remedial program: To overcome problem or negativity One-time Project: To accomplish specific objectiveReputation and Public Support: Reinforce ongoing effort to preserve
151b) ObjectivesUsually stating in terms of program outcomes instead of inputs:Does it really address situation?Is it realistic and achievable?Can success be measured in meaningful terms?Two types of objectives:InformationalMotivational (bottom-line)
152c) AudienceTargets specific publics within a general publicIdentify key publics through market research based on demographicsd) StrategyA strategy statement describes how, in concept, an objective is to be achieved, providing guidelines and themes for the overall program (e.g. key messages / themes).
153e)Tactics‘Nuts and bolts’ part of the plan that describes, in sequence, the specific activities that put the strategies into operation and help achieve stated objectives. Examples include:Toll-free facilitated product literaturePhysical illustrationsPress conferencesPress kitNews releasesMagazineTestimonials on softwareTour / Test-drive
154f) Calendar / Timetable When campaign should be conductedDetermine proper sequence of activitiesCompile list of steps that must be completed to produce finished productEnvironmental context of situation in which time when key messages are most meaningful to intended audience
155g) Budget Two categories: Staff time Out-of-pocket Considerations: How much will program cost?Reverse approach: Organisations establish an amount they can afford, then PR write program plan that reflects amount allocated
156h)EvaluationCriteria should be realistic, credible, specific, in line with client or employer expectationsRestate objectives and which evaluation method to be used
157TOPIC 7: Implementing the Plan – Action and Communication in Public Relations DefinitionsCommunication in PR is about executing the plan that has been prepared – the most noticeable part of PR work.Communication means putting into action decisions that have been made in order to achieve the set objectives
158Action in PR is defined as ‘socially responsible acts taken by PR departments or other parts of the organisation with your counsel.Action is about what you do or have done, while communication is telling people about what you have done or are going to do.
159Strategy and TacticsA strategy is the overall objective constructed out of sight of the ‘enemy’ but those in command; tactics are immediate measures taken in full view of adversaries.Tactics continue to be the visible implementation of strategy.
160Range of Tactics Publicity Newsletters Leaflets Direct mail Posters FlyersStickersFunctions and eventsInternet sitesCompetitionsCelebrity spokespeopleLobbyingCommunity meetings / announcementsOpen daysAnnual reportsVideos / PhotographySponsorshipsExhibitions
161TOPIC 8: Public Relations and New Communication Technologies PR professionals are needed to ‘drive’ technologies like the World Wide Web and use in organisations where communication imparts, carry out the sharing of information, news and ideas, so as to make common among people the process of message exchange.
162Communication Technologies Communication technologies are tools for exchange of messages among humansInformation technologies are tools for data managementCommunication technologies are often called media because they mediate messages among senders and receiversInterpersonal media are those that allow message exchange among two or three people
163Mass media are those through which messages are sent to a large and diverse group of receivers Newer media are those which have emerged and gained widespread use in the past two decadesMedia diffused throughout the first years of the 20th century are traditional
164Technological Determination Technological determinists believe that technologies produce social and behavioural changes independent of other influencesThey believe that the Internet radically change peopleThey claim that newer media improves the practice
165Holds that technology evolves independent of society and social forces and that it exerts its effects without regard for the understandings, protestations, resistances and even the champions attached to itSocial change is driven by technology, rather than the institutionalisation or cultural adaptation of the technology
166At policy level, its emphasis is on investing in technology to spearhead economic growth Those who implement technology may be more interested in getting the technologyworking rather than considering its social contexts, implications or applicationsTechnological determinists are either optimists or pessimists
167Socio-Culturalism/ Social Constructivism This is the notion that societies determine the emergence and use of technologiesSocio-culturalists argue that society moulds technologies, finds uses for them, and rejects those that work badly or offer little benefit
168Argues that technology is no different from any other institutions or phenomena – it is a product of societyTechnology arises and changes because of the institutions of society and is a representation of the vested interests of different social groupings
169Technology cannot exist without society’s tactic and implicit approval Ultimately, it is the market of intended users that will determine the success or otherwise of any technologyHow we understand technology determines how we use it which consequently determines how it affects society
170Complex SystemsMiddle position between technological determinism and social constructivismTechnology evolves in the context of social processes and forces; and is therefore not different from any other societal productAt the same time, there is a radical uncertainty about technological change – technology is unpredictable because it does not simply and directly represent the interests of those most involved in its development
171Electronic communications TWO main areas:Telematics (telephone, fax, videotex, audio and video teleconferencing)Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) ( , bulletin boards, diaries/ schedules, electronic conferences, databases/ retrieval systems, research and analysis)
172Public Relations and Communication Technologies PR practitioners must be computer literate and able to make information readily available to their increasingly sophisticated publics within and outside organisationsImportant publicity can be gained through using community bulletin boards (BBS)
173Electronic media releases are attractive to news outlets as it can be quickly screen-edited and printed/broadcastPR does not have to be bound to physical space of an officeMany activities can be done from home or while travelling
174Hours of work can be redefined Electronic communication can overcome difficulties associated with world time zonesSpeed of communication is enhanced
175Newer channels of communication Telecommunications ‘to communicate from afar’Mobile phones ‘sound from afar’Facsimile ‘to make similar’Fax newsletters (broadcast fax)Fax on demandFax mailboxesVideo
176Video news releases (VNRs) VideoconferencingComputer-mediated communicationWeb (information in and information out)Chat (IRC)Usenet newsgroupsInternet misinformation and rogue websites
177TOPIC 9: Government Relations Governments with various political persuasions at all levels, federal, state and local, engage in public relations to promote legislation and policies to their publics.
178DefinitionsGovernment Relations is ‘the art of working with the myriad of legislative and regulatory bodies that have influence over your organisation.It takes place at the local, state and federal levels. And if your organisation does any kind of business abroad or has clients overseas, it occurs on the international level as well’.
179‘Public affairs is related to issues management … in that it helps organisations anticipate or respond to issues affecting their activities or environment.Public affairs efforts include seeking to shape public opinion and legislation, developing effective responses to matters of public concern, and helping the organisation adapt to public expectations.
180Specifically, public affairs may be involved in monitoring public policy, providing political education for employees or other constituents, maintaining liaisons with various government departments, and encouraging political participation’Lobbying is ‘a specialized (sic) part of public relations that builds and maintains relations with government primarily for the purpose of influencing legislation and regulation’.
181Government relations is used to cover three main areas: PR practices by governmentPR with government practised by businesses, groups and organisationsPublic Affairs
182Three main ways in which PR intersect with democratic government: Use of media management by government to pursue its political and policy objectivesUse of public affairs/lobbying by interest groups to affect government decisionsUse of campaign techniques in the elections required prior to the formation of governments
183Tasks of Lobbyists Monitoring legislation and regulation Creating opportunities to present an organisation’s viewPromoting these views through the mediaServing as a source of information to government officials and their staffKeeping senior management informed on legislative or regulatory developments
184TOPIC 10: Internal and Community Relations Internal RelationsInternal relations is the efficient communications within organisations which is critical to the pursuit of organisational objectives and outcomes.
185Communication must be two-way between levels/sections and various individuals if understandings, goals, a common sense of purpose, pride, profitability, and collective/corporate well-being are to be sought and, hopefully, achieved.
186People’s roles and responsibilities may vary within organisations but organisations cease to function effectively if there is no cohesiveness, a shared sense of endeavour which comes from an interactive process of communication.
187The term ‘organisation’ has been defined as ‘a system of coordinated activities of a group of people working cooperatively toward a common goal under authority and leadership’.Internal publics comprise two main groups:Organisation’s employeesAssociation’s members
188EmployeesEmployees are all the people working for the organisation, from the chairman of the board to the junior in the mailroomEmployee publics do not only refer to the full-time permanent staff, but include part-time and casual employees, contractors and volunteersMembersMembers join association out of special or professional interestMembers pay a joining fee
189Tools and channels of communication Newsletter and company newspapersNotice boardsMemosAwardsEventsIntranetsInterpersonal communication
190Community RelationsCommunity relations should also be seen as an interdependent relationship where every community has a vital stake in the economic health and prosperity of its institutions.Every organisation has a vital stake in the health and prosperity of the community it inhabits
191The Role of Community Relations Primary task is to enhance the visibility/status of the organisation, its value in the eyes of the community/ communitiesMaintain and enhance on-going activityOne-off events have their place, but on-going, often low level exposure, is important in complementing other forms of publicity
192Identifying and tap on a variety of networks (e. g Identifying and tap on a variety of networks (e.g. community leaders, opinion shapers, local media, civic groups, local/regional councils, schools, hospitals, charities, sporting groups, etc)Provision of regular information to community groups and maintenance of personal contacts
193Maintaining the attractiveness of an organisation’s facilities and encouraging your employees Members acting as ambassadorsCommitment to current community concerns (e.g. environmentally-friendly)Sponsorship
194Grants/donations of equipment (philanthropy) ScholarshipsSupporting fund-raising projectsBeing active in local service clubsAssisting local/regional governments and agencies
195Crisis Communication Management Anticipating a crisis is part of every public relations professional’s job.To that end, every organization should have an up-to-date crisis communication plan in the hands of a clearly identified and prepared crisis communication team—internal public relations staff, management representatives and outside public relations counsel where appropriate.This plan should be aligned to your company’s operations crisis plan.
196Crisis EventAn organization’s reputation often stands or falls based on how it handles a crisis during critical first 24 hours following a crisis. When a crisis occurs, the first step is to determine what kind of crisis.There are two main categories based on consequences—violent or nonviolent.
197Violent crises involve a cataclysmic loss of life and/or property. Nonviolent crises are often financial, but not always.Some crises are on-going, lasting for months or even years.
198Identify priority publics These may change with the type of crisis while others will remain constant, such as employees, customers, shareholders, suppliers, the neighbors, larger community, media, regulatory agencies, government, etc.Inform employees and your internal audience first
199Demonstrate concern and communicate what the organization is doing or planning to do to solve the problem.Anyone who works for the organization is likely to become a source, whether intentionally or not. Often neighbors, suppliers, customers and even the media (if not kept informed through official channels) will turn to employees for information. Be sure to caution employees against becoming spokespeople, even inadvertently, and remind them to route any media contacts to your media relations department.
200Keep employees informed so they don’t resort to speculation that generates rumours. Rumours can sometimes create more damage than the initial crisis.
201As the Crisis UnfoldsStrive for a timely, consistent and candid flow of accurate information to both internal and external publics to allay fears and stifle rumours.The organization should continue to function as normally as possible, leaving it to the crisis management team to contend with the crisis.
202EvaluationLearn from the crisis experience. After it’s over, reconvene the crisis management team to evaluate.Review the crisis’ causes, the organization’s responses to it and the outcomes.If necessary, make changes to the structure of the organization.If the organization has a history of an open-management style, such changes are likely to be slight.
203Types of CrisesCrises may also be categorized into different types, such asimmediate,emerging, andsustained.
204Immediate crisesImmediate crises are often of the natural disaster or major emergency type, such as earthquakes, fires, crimes, or accidents.There is often little opportunity for specific research and planning.However, a general plan can often be in place and implemented to effectively reduce damage and enhance the situation.
205Emerging crisesEmerging crises are those that allow more time for analysis and specific planning.These may include employee dissatisfaction, opposition by various groups, budget reductions, or customer migration from a company.Often these situations can be anticipated and minimized at early stages.Public relations leaders should inform other managers of situations that are not at the full crisis stage yet, but if left untreated could become major problems.
206Sustained crisesSustained crises involve situations that won’t go away and may linger for years.Dealing with rumours is a prime example. Especially in today’s archived society, an organizational rumour (even if untrue) is virtually impossible to erase from the news outlet databases and other locations searchable through the Internet.Again, the best solution for these negative situations is to stop them early whenever possible.
207Management Skills and Issues Successful public relations professionals understand the depth of influence public relations programming can have to propel the business into a leadership position in its industry.Public relations employs a planning process that is deliberate, performance-based, in the public interest and involves two-way communications and ethical practices.
208Achieving excellence in management skills and issues, including: cultural and gender diversity,decision-making,leadership,organizational problem solving andteam building, leads to such success.
209LeadershipMany styles of leadership exist—sometimes within the same person. A successful leader is able to adapt the style of his or her leadership while maintaining basic, core principles that sustain the organization.Style may depend on the organization’s culture and the specific task, as well as the leader’s personality and the group he or she is leading.
210Executive leadership today is about building and maintaining trusting relationships with compassion, open and candid communication among employees, customers, suppliers, investors, analysts, board members and all major stakeholder groups.It's about influencing the behaviour of people through persuasive communication.
211Knowing and Assessing the Management Functions of Public Relations Managerial skills and strategic planning expertise separate managers and leaders from technicians.For many organizations, line management functions include only product-producing and profit-producing functions that increase the bottom line such as: engineering, production and marketing.Staff management functions provide advice and counsel to those in line management positions.
212There is often a fine line differentiating staff and line roles, but public relations experts define the field as a staff function, parallel with finance, human resources, legal and other management functions that advise the CEO and the Board.However, public relations practitioners work closely with various levels of management within the organization.
213Public relations can include some or all of the following line management functions: Anticipates, analyzes and interprets public opinion, attitudes and issues that might impact, for good or ill, the operations and plans of the organization.Counsels management at all levels in the organization with regard to policy decisions, courses of action and communications, taking into account their public ramifications and the organization’s social or citizenship responsibilities.
214Researches, conducts and evaluates programs of action and communications to achieve the informed public understanding necessary to the success of an organization’s aims. These may include marketing, financial, fund raising, as well as employee, community or government relations, and other programs.
215Plans and implements the organization’s efforts to influence or change public policy. Sets objectives, plans, budgets, recruits and trains staff—in short, manages the resources needed to perform all of the above.
216Working with Other Departments In addition to working effectively as a distinct function, public relations practitioners also must work with other departments or units in an organization.Because marketing focuses on the sales aspects of an organization, there is a definite need for the two areas to work cooperatively.
217Legal counsel is another area often linked with public relations Legal counsel is another area often linked with public relations. Cooperation between the two areas can lead to success for an organization because battles must be won in the court of public opinion and the court of law.Human resources units typically work closely with public relations, especially in areas of employee communication, recruiting, and other workplace issues
218DiversityRecognizing the role of culture and diversity in public relations programming means understanding the importance of values, attitudes and beliefs of the various publics an organization serves.Public relations professionals, once equipped with culturally proficient communication models, messages and tools, can influence an organization’s publics by addressing the unique needs of each public.
219In the business world and its strategic management approaches, diversity goes beyond communication strategies.Encouraging understanding and acceptance of people from diverse backgrounds within an organization’s employees, services or products is at the core of many companies’ cultures.