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How social norms can enrich communication for development practice The ah ha moment! video Ketan Chitnis, PhD UNICEF Viet Nam.

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Presentation on theme: "How social norms can enrich communication for development practice The ah ha moment! video Ketan Chitnis, PhD UNICEF Viet Nam."— Presentation transcript:

1 How social norms can enrich communication for development practice The ah ha moment! video Ketan Chitnis, PhD UNICEF Viet Nam

2 Conceptual underpinning Commn for social changeSocial norms change Pattern of behaviour Prefer to follow irrespective of others Custom or moral rule Follow if they belief others follow behaviour Empirical expectation enough to motivate action (DN) Normative expectations needed to motivate action (SN) Policy/Enabling Environment (national, state, local laws) Organizational (organizations and social institutions Community (relationships between organizations) Interpersonal (families, friends, social networks) Individual (knowledge, attitudes, behaviors)

3 Why people do what they do? C4D in general Cultural practice based on deep rooted beliefs (care of newborn/infants, disciplining children, illness and well being) Attitudes developed over time based on experience, understanding, interaction Social pressure, expectation (in laws, neighbours, authorities, etc) Limited choice/exposure to different practices Limited knowledge base Social norms perspective Unconditional behaviour Customs Personal normative beliefs – true or false Conditional behaviour Social proof Normative expectations

4 How people change? Comm for social change Mutual and share understanding of reality Empowerment resulting from self- and collective efficacy Change structures within society that limit people from achieving full potential Attitudinal change essential for individual change and to demand rights Networks as connectors to spread new ideas Norm change or creation Changes in social expectations Collective change of expectations Coordinated actions Harmonize moral, legal and social norms Power dynamics forms and expression (including faceless power) Networks as relationships

5 Methodological approach Comm for social changeSocial norm change Community Dialogue Regular meetings, specific forums, Collective Action Resulting from empowerment Individual & Collective Change Diffusion inherent to the process Catalyst Media, Policies, Programmes, Community event Value deliberation Making change visible Organized diffusion Collective Change/ Coordinat ed Core group

6 Summary Comm for social change recognizes communities change via dialogue, action, diffusion of new ideas, empowering individuals and communities and by having an enabling environment for new practices to thrive Social norms approach recognizes that certain patterns of behaviour are rules followed due to the social expectations and sanctions imposed by others who are part of the network, and change is feasible when expectations are altered

7 Enriching the comm for social change approach with social norms perspective Inter-dependent actions and coordinated change Changing social expectations (media is used to model new behaviours but not always) Emphasis on changing deep-rooted beliefs (masculinity, gender roles) is not resulting in the expected change Emphasis on self-efficacy with less attention paid to power structures Changes in power is understood too simplistically (people would demand rights when well informed and having confidence)

8 Tools to consider in C4D analysis to determine norms Questions Prevailing beliefs, attitudes, practices and norms What are the factual beliefs of people towards CWD? CWDs need help, they are pitiable and require handouts and charity to assist families and CWDs, especially those with severe mental/ developmental disabilities What are personal normative beliefs towards CWDs? CWDs require assistance from the state – special schools, respite centres, etc CWDs are generally dependent on someone around them What are the current preferences towards CWDs by parents, community, teachers, government, etc? Keep children away from neighbours/community as they will be made fun of Send CWDs especially with severe disabilities to special school and protection centre CWDs can only be taught certain basic skills (vocational) What are the empirical expectations? Schools do not have facilities or teachers with requisite skills to accommodate CWDs; Special day care and residential centres for CWDs (severe disabilities) by the government What are the normative expectations? People perceive that given the special needs of CWD to either send them to institutional care or keep them in the house away from other children; Need to further probe this area.

9 What are the current sanctions – real or perceived – towards parents of CWDs/CWDs? Parents of CWDs – need to explore CWDs - Ridicule/made fun of, not willingly integrated by other children/neigbours, etc How can value deliberations be initiated around CWDs? Current media portrayals are negative – CWD and PWDs in general are shown as helpless and needing assistance. Positive media portrayals and by having public events to showcase the potential of CWDs. Who would be the reference network for parents of CWDs? Neighbours and community is the immediate network but central nodes and bridge nodes need to be identified. What prevailing power structures inhibit or favor integration of CWDs into society? Further analysis is required around why families decide to either send CWDs to institutional care or keep them at home hidden from society. What are the prevailing legal norms re CWDs? Existing laws and policies need to be reviewed. How can social expectations re CWD be altered? Explore options that parents, communities, teachers, leaders etc consider as feasible in the society for CWD for integration. Use existing role models and success stories to alter factual beliefs towards CWDs Tools to consider in C4D analysis to determine norms


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