Presentation on theme: "Promoting Student Use of Expected Behaviors"— Presentation transcript:
1Promoting Student Use of Expected Behaviors Prevent, Teach, and Reinforce:Promoting Student Use of Expected BehaviorsRegional Forumpresented by:and theRegional Special Education Technical Assistance Support Center
2From the NYS PBIS TAC & the RSE-TASC Details…1. registration2. flash drive3. handouts4. restrooms, breaks, lunch5. evaluations
3PBIS Training Expectations BEHAVIORBERESPONSIBLEMake yourself comfortableTake care of your needsReturn quickly and quietlyTell us your questionsRESPECTFULTurn cell phones off or to “vibrate”Listen to others attentivelyContribute to the teamFollow up on assigned tasksENGAGEDShare your passionTake notesPlan with your teamHave FUN!!!!3
5GoalsLearn how to utilize the supports embedded in Tiers Two and Three of the PBIS modelUnderstand how the behavior pathway unfolds and influences the environmentUnderstand how to utilize the behavior pathway to intervene and shape behaviorLearn how to prevent, teach, and reinforce functionally related replacement behaviors
7Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Tier 3: FBA process is initiated when previous interventions tried have been unsuccessful.Tier 2: Small group strategies or low level targeted interventions should be tried and data collected.Tier 1: Strong classroom management and school policy is the first line of defense for ALL students.
8Supporting Social Competence & IntegratedElementsSupporting Social Competence &Academic AchievementOUTCOMESSupportingDecisionMakingSupportingStaff BehaviorDATASYSTEMSPRACTICESSupportingStudent Behavior
9Thinking About Intervention Levels/Tiers Primary (T1)Secondary (T2)Intensive (T3)Instruction/Intervention ApproachComprehensive research-based curriculumStandardized, targeted small-group instructionIndividualized, based on student dataGroup SizeClass-wide (with some small group instruction)3–7 students1 studentMonitor Progress1x per termAt least 1x per monthWeeklyPopulation ServedAll studentsAt-risk studentsSignificant and persistent learning needs
10How can Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) support individuals who exhibit challenging behavior?Learn how to utilize Tier Two Interventions to meet the needs of students who are not responding to Tier 1 supports.Learn how to utilize Tier Three Interventions to meet the needs of students who have not responded to the combination of Tier 1 and Tier 2 Supports.Learn about the SCIENCE behind behaviorSetting Events, Antecedents, Consequences and FunctionsLearn about techniques to help PREVENT setting events and antecedents from triggering behaviorsLearn about how to TEACH functionally equivalent replacement behaviorsLearn how to respond to inappropriate behavior and REINFORCE the use of a replacement behavior
11Data Based Individual Evaluation (DBI) Secondary intervention program, delivered with greater intensityProgress monitoringInformal diagnostic assessmentAdaptationContinued progress monitoring, with adaptations occurring whenever needed to ensure adequate progress
12Check In/Check Out(CICO) Small group interventionWho is CICO for?Systematic performance feedbackDaily organizational and behavioral supportHigh rates of positive adult attentionPositive communication link between home and schoolSets students up for success each morning and can be faded to develop student self-management.Students who continue to demonstrate problems after PBIS universal supports are in placeStudents with 2-5 office discipline referralsNeed increased levels of structure, routine, and feedbackDemonstrate patterns of behavior that are functionally related to obtaining attentionLow levels of disruptionTalk out/Talk backUnpreparedNon-compliant
13Basics of CICO Morning Check-In (Get Daily Progress Report DPR) Regular Teacher feedback throughout the dayEnd of the day check-outTally and record pointsReceive recognitionData collection and progress monitoringTake DPR home and return signed copy
14Elementary Example of DPR 0= Not Yet1= Good2= ExcellentBe SafeBe RespectfulBe Your Personal BestTeacher initialsKeep hands, feet, and objects to selfUse kind wordsand actionsFollow directionsWorking in classClassRecessLunchTotal Points =Points Possible =Today ______________%Goal ______________%
15Check-in Check-out Cycle Weekly Progress MonitoringData Based DecisionsProgram UpdateEXITTier Two InterventionMorning Check-InAfternoon Check-outHome Check-InClass Check outTeacher ChecksClass Check in
16Morning Check-inConsistent location (same place, same time)Begin with positive greetingHello JaQuan it is so nice to see you!Ask probing questionsHow was your night at home?Did you get your homework done?How are you feeling today?Address any potential setting eventsI can imagine last night was difficult. How can we plan to have a good day today? What can we do to make sure we are meeting expectations?Prompt the student to get DPRReminder of expectationsBe RespectfulBe SafeBe a Problem Solver
17Throughout the dayStudent carries DPRAll teachers greet and pre-corrects as antecedent strategiesHello JaQuan, nice to have you in class today.We want to make sure that you are following expectations in class, so lets review what we need to do today. Be Respectful, Be Safe, Be a Problem SolverEstablish criteria for prompts and pointsIf you raise your hand, use an appropriate tone of voice, and ask for help when needed, you will earn full points for being respectful.If you follow directions, keep personal space, and take a break when needed, you will earn full points for being safe.If you use a problem solving strategy (look at the board, read directions, ask a peer or teacher for help) when you have a problem, you will earn full points for being a problem solver.Teacher provides feedback (positive, correct action, positive)and students earn pointsJaQuan you did a great job of meeting the Be Respectful and Be Safe expectations.JaQuan you struggled with being a problem solver when you did not have all the materials for the activity. How can you be a better problem solver tomorrow?JaQuan, you should be proud of yourself for earning full points for the expectations of Be Respectful and Be Safe.
18End of the day Check-Out Consistent location (same time, same place)Adult positive greetingSo nice to see you at the end of the day JaQuan!Total points, calculate percentage and enter dataYour total points for the day are ___________Your percentage for the day is ___________Daily or weekly reinforcements for meeting goalsJaQuan you are working towards __________Quick debrief with studentI see you meet expectations in English and Social Studies. What did you do to be successful there?You had some difficulty in Math. What were some roadblocks to being successful there?How can you improve your total points and percentage tomorrow?Provide parent communicationMake sure to share and talk about your DPR with an adult at home and get the DPR signed.
19Turn & TalkIn groups of three, take turns practicing the cycle of Check-in Check-Out based on the provided scenario.Have one participant take on the role of the adult, one participant take on the role of the child, and the third participant will provide feedback on the interaction.Rotate through the roles and stages of CICOMorning Check-InThroughout the Day Check-InEnd of the Day Check- Out
20Sample Behavioral Progression With Check In/Check Out
21Tier 2 ~ Small Group Interventions (approx. 2-10 students) Social Skills GroupsAcademic Intervention GroupsProvides specific social skills training/instruction, based on the student’s identified function of behaviorCan be used to teach replacement social behaviors identified from the school-wide matrix (desired behaviors)Teach students specific skills that they should be using in place of the inappropriate behaviors. For example, how to use graphic organizers or a step sheet to support work completion
22Who are these interventions for? Social Skills GroupAcademic Intervention GroupsStudents who consistently demonstrate the inability to interact appropriately with peers or adults in academic and non academic settingStudents who would benefit from direct instruction on targeted skillsStudents who consistently demonstrate inappropriate or escape/avoid behaviors when presented with a specific academic taskStudents who benefit from direct instruction on targeted academic skills to help remove the “academic antecedent”
23Set up of Small Intervention Groups Focus on one skill intervention at a timeProvide 3 or 4 adaptations of skill3 to 6 studentsMin. 45 mins/Max. 60 mins2 or 3 x per week for 8 weeksBooster sessions every 2 – 4 weeksAttendance Punctuality Participation Confidentiality Good Listener Corrective Feedback Homework
24Social Skills and/or Academic Deficit? Peer relationsComplimenting others, offering help, inviting peers to playSelf-management skillsControlling temper, following rules, compromisingAcademic skillsCompleting work independently, listening to teacher direction, producing acceptable quality workCompliance skillsFollowing directions, following rules, using free time appropriatelyAssertion skillsInitiating conversation, acknowledging complimentsAcquisition DeficitAbsence of knowledge for executing skill or failure to discriminate which skills are appropriate in specific situations (can’t do)Performance DeficitSkill is present in repertoire, but student fails to perform at acceptable levels (won’t do)Fluency DeficitLack of exposure to sufficient or skilled models, insufficient rehearsal or low rates or inconsistent delivery of reinforcement of skilled performances
25Sample Social Skills Session TimeGreet students and introduce session goal(s)5Define the featured social skill3Initiate “Tell” phaseProvide learning objective for featured social skillIntroduce the skill by asking how it will be helpful to students and situations in which they could use the skill.Define a specific skill.Discuss why the skill is important.Outline steps for performing the behavior.Initiate “Show” phaseModel the behavior (positive and negative)Model discreetly each of the major steps for enacting the featured skill.With student helper, direct a role play of a typical situation.Lead a discussion of alternative behaviors to accomplish the social behavior objective.10Initiate “Do” phase with role-playAsk students to define the skillAsk students to state the steps required to accomplish the skillRepeat critical steps for enacting the behavior.Ask students to model the skill in role plays.Ask other students to provide feedback for the student using the skill in the role plays15Review and provide homework assignmentProvide feedback about group’s performance and specify date/time for next session2
26Sample Academic Intervention Session TimeGreet students and introduce session goal(s)5Define the featured academic skill3Initiate “Tell” phaseProvide learning objective for featured academic skillIntroduce the skill by asking how it will be helpful to studentsDefine a specific academic skill.Discuss why the academic skill is important.Outline steps for performing the academic skill.Initiate “Show” phaseModel the academic skillModel discreetly each of the major steps for enacting the featured skill.Lead the student through guided practice of multiple demonstrations of the academic skill.Lead a discussion of alternative academic skills that could also be used to achieve the objective10Initiate “Do” phaseAsk students to define the skillAsk students to state the steps required to accomplish the skillRepeat critical steps for the academic skill.Ask students to model the skill through independent practice.Provide feedback for the student on their independent use of the skill15Review and provide homework assignmentProvide feedback about group’s performance and specify date/time for next session2
27Turn & Talk Pick from one of the social skills Within your groups, develop a “sample lesson plan” for a social skills group.Develop the “tell, show, and do” components of the skill.Pick from one of the social skillsPeer relationsSelf-management skillsAcademic skillsCompliance skillsAssertion skills
29Tier Three Supports Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) Wraparound Student Targeted Aggression Replacement Training (START)Rehabilitation, Empowerment, Natural Supports, Education, and Work (RENEW)Special Education ServicesIndividualized Education ProgramWe will be focusing on the behavior pathway and the development of a BIP because the other Tier Three Supports are multi-dimensional and beyond the scope of this training
30What is behavior?An observable activity in a human that unfolds in a predictable sequenceMost behaviors are externally observable (can be seen)SmilingHittingCryingLaughingBehaviors that are observable can be clearly defined and measured (counted or timed)
31Behavioral Pathway Problem Behavior Antecedent Consequence Setting EventTriggeringAntecedentProblem BehaviorProblemBehaviorMaintainingConsequenceHypothesis: When (setting event) occurs, and (the antecedent happens) the (problem behavior) because in order to (function).
32Behavioral Pathway 5. FUNCTION 4. Setting Events2. TriggeringAntecedents1. ProblemBehavior3. MaintainingConsequencesInfrequent events that affect value of main. conseq.Following events that maintain behaviors of concernPreceding events that trigger or occasionSet of related behaviors of concern5. FUNCTIONWhy the student engages in the behaviorHypothesis: When (setting event) occurs, and (the antecedent happens) the (problem behavior) because in order to (function).
33“Could someone help me with these? I’m late for math class.” Setting Events“Could someone help me with these? I’m late for math class.”33
34Setting Events Setting events help explain why people respond differently at different times when presented with the same set of events or triggers.Fatigue (lack of sleep)Staffing patternPrevious conflictTransitionsChanges in routinesTime of dayMornings/AfternoonsDay of WeekMondays and FridaysFeelings of inadequacyChanges in other environmentsSpending the night with one parent versus anotherChallenges due to a disabilityHunger (lack of food)Illness/AllergiesMedicationsSide EffectsWearing OffTraumatic eventSeasonalWinter MonthsHoliday TimeRainy/Gloomy Weather
36FactorsAntecedents trigger behaviors. Observable and measurable characteristics of the environment that are present (immediately) prior to the occurrence of the behaviorPhysical SettingOver/under sensory stimulation: noise, crowding, temperature; missing or present materials, furniture configurations, work and space organizationSocial SettingGuest teacher, people present or absent, interactionpatterns in or around the studentAcademic FactorsMismatch between instructional materials/teaching strategies and student learning profile.Scheduling FactorsLack of explicitly stated/taught procedures, absence of a visual schedule, unanticipated changes to t he routine, specific times within the schedule (daily or class)Degree of IndependenceMismatch between the level required to complete a task independently and student abilityDegree of ParticipationGroup size (too large/too small), subject, location (class, teacher), frequency of participation (expectation too high/too low)Social InteractionMismatch between student need: to communicate with peers and time allotted to do so; to receive peer attention, social status, or respectDegree of ChoiceLack of choice-making opportunities, choice options: too many, too broad
37Antecedents have a directly functional cause/effect (if this, then that) relationship to the occurrence of a targeted behaviorWHERE and WHENthe behavior occurs.Where= Routines where the problem behavior is most likelyWhen= Specific events within a routine that predict the problem behaviorWhere (Routine), When (Antecedent) Student does (Behavior)ExamplesDuring lunch, when told to shut up by a peer, Ben hits the studentDuring language arts, when asked to read aloud in class, Tracy gets up and tells jokesDuring circle time, when praised Jessie starts crying
39Consequences or Response to Behavior They are observable and measurable events in the environment that occur following behaviorConsequences are functionally related to behavior. The behavior is said to prompt environmental consequences (response or reaction).Consequences may, in turn, sustain or strengthen that behavior (reinforce), or weaken or suppress that behavior (punish).
40Common Responses to Behavior Depending on the function of the student’s behavior, each of these responses can serve to either reinforce or suppress the behavior, therefore we must consider function carefully.teacher attention (smiles, prompts, scolds)peer attentionbeing ignored or left alonebeing sent awaygetting a toy, or a good gradea satisfying level of physical activity
42Function Based Thinking BehaviorGain/ObtainAvoid/EscapeSensorySocialTangible orPreferredActivityAdultPeerFunction Based Thinking“The WHY of Behavior”
43Most Common Functions of Behavior Obtain/ Get :Peer attention (positive or negative)Adult attention (positive or negative)Desired activityDesired object/ itemsSensory stimulation: auditory, tactile, etc.To Avoid/ Escape:Difficult TaskBoring TaskEasy TaskPhysical demandNon-preferred activityPeerStaffReprimandsSensory Stimulation
44Examples of Function in School Obtain/Get ReinforcersI yell because others look at meI fight because others listen to meI wander because people talk to meI hit in order to get toys from other kids.Escape/Avoid AversivesI cry when work gets hard because someone will help meI throw a book during math class because the teacher will remove me from classI stand out of the way during PE because the other game participants will avoid throwing me the ball.
46Behavior Pathway Diagram Elementary Example (JaQuan) Setting EventsTriggeringAntecedentsProblemBehaviorMaintainingConsequences3421Get/Obtain peer’s attention (peer yells at student)Sees peers playing with one anotherNo attention from peersSlaps peer on the backFunction: Get/Obtain Peer Attention
47Turn & TalkRead the following student scenarios and map the student’s behavior and determine the function of the student’s behaviorSetting EventsTriggeringAntecedentsProblemBehaviorMaintainingConsequences4213Function:
48When Sequoia misses her 12:30 medication & teachers present multiple task demands, she makes negative self-statements & writes profane language on her assignments. Teaching staff typically send her to the office with a discipline referral for being disrespectful.Avoid difficult tasksWhat function?Setting eventAntecedentBehaviorConsequenceSequoia makesnegative self-statements &writes profanelanguageTeacher sendsSequoia tooffice for beingdisrespectfulMisses 12:30medicationTeachersmakemultipletask demands
49Caesar has dyed his hair three colors & is teased several times by his friends before class. When he enters the class, his teacher stares at his hair. Caesar immediately says “what are you staring at?” His teacher immediately sends him to in-school detention.Escape adult &peer attentionWhat function?Setting eventAntecedentBehaviorConsequenceCaesar isteased severaltimes about hishair by hisfriends beforeclassHis teacherstares at hishair in classCaesar askshis teacherwhat she’sstaring atHis teachersends him toin-schooldetention
50After developing a function based hypothesis.... We can then begin to consider:How to prevent behaviors from occurringTeach replacement behaviorsUse the principles of reinforcement to change behavior
51Prevention-Setting Events & Antecedents What is OUT of your control in terms of classroom systems?What is IN your control in terms of classroom systems?
52Setting Events may be out of our control but we can try to lessen the impact of some common setting eventsSetting EventStrategyMissed BreakfastMake sure child has breakfast (i.e. school breakfast program)Up late playing video gamesTalk with parent about appropriate bed times & help them set up a “bed-time” reinforcement system at homeAllow child to rest during “free times”Evicted from homeContact the school’s McKinney-Vento CoordinatorRunning temperatureHave child check in with nurseDid not take ADD medicationProvide alternative tasksHave nurse give medication at schoolTransitionProvide child a schedule and use predictable routinesPreset a child 5 minutes prior to transitionArgued with peer at breakfastCheck in with adult in the cafeteria before the school day begins
53Using Positive Interactions to Prevent or Lessen the Impact of Antecedents Be explicit about directivesI need students to raise their hands and wait to be called on during group discussion.Acknowledge students who are complying with directivesI like how Dylan got his materials out and is waiting quietly.Provide a non-verbal visual or cue to indicate to a student that they need to modify their behaviorTug of earHand raisedTry to maintain at least a 4:1 ratioFor every corrective statement, make four positive statements
54Antecedent Prevention~ Can I add or modify? TimeMore/less of the assignmentBreaksChunkingPacing techniquesSpaceProximityAssigned buddyStudy carrelWork areas clearly identifiedInstruction/ MaterialsAbility levelHands onManipulativesSequencing traysNotebook organizersEnlarged printInteractionsSupportiveVoice volume and wordsPositive self-talkVerbal praise
55We must also consider the function of the student’s behavior when utilizing antecedent interventions
56Functionally Equivalent Replacement Behaviors (FERBs): Should be as easily performed as the problem behaviorShould be taught and reinforcedBehavior skills must be taught as intentionally and systematically as academic skills are taughtMay become unnecessary once environmental supports are in place OR the student has learned new skills OR becomes more proficient than the inappropriate behviorProblem behaviors are irrelevant whenChild doesn’t need to escape anymoreChild has access to positive events more commonlyProblem behaviors are inefficient whenAlternative behavior is availableAlternative behavior is taughtProblem behaviors are ineffective whenProblem behavior NO LONGER works- it does not get the child what they want to obtain or what they want to avoid.
57FunctionReplacement BehaviorsEscape/AvoidAsk for helpAsk for a breakExpress need/concern using appropriate words, cards, pictures, or signalsAsk for a different setting , choice of an alternative task, or responsibilityUse daily or weekly “opt out” card (a pass for an activity or task)Use arm gestures to express need for personal spaceRequest time with teacher or counselorSeek out a trusted friendAttentionRaise handRequest counseling timeAsk to work with a peerAsk for a high fiveAsk for a turnRequest opportunity to lead lesson, state opinion, help others etcSensoryUse appropriate words to communicate about overwhelming elementsRequest a whole class or individual stretch breakUse predetermined deep tissue activity (stress ball, hand massage etc)Use agreed-upon card, picture, or signal to request appropriate itemRequest predetermined food or other item for oral inputUse self-management statementsTangibleAsk for item politelyAsk teacher for assistance with obtaining tangible itemSelect another activity until it is his or her turn
59Teach Replacement Behaviors through Explicit Direct Instruction Model how to demonstrate skillProvide explicit instructionsRehearse skillProvide feedbackPractice in natural settingReinforce students for demonstrating the skill
60Asking for Assistance Model how to demonstrate skill Model how to raise one’s hand quietlyDemonstrate using examples and non-examplesExample – Hand raised in the air, eyes on the teacher, mouth closed, ears openNon-example – Hand waving in the air, eyes wandering, shouting the person’s nameProvide explicit instructions for demonstrating skillRaise hand high enough to be seen by others & hold hand stillEyes directed towards the person, mouth closed, ears openWhen acknowledged, ask in a calm tone of voice “Can you please help me?” or some variation of this questionWait patiently (explain what patiently looks like) for a response
61Asking for Assistance Continued.. Rehearse social skillPractice it through role playProvide feedback on social skillLet students know what they have done well first and then give points for improvementPractice social skills in natural setting to promote generalizationPractice the raising the hand in the classroomReinforce students for demonstrating social skillProvide verbal positive reinforcement when students raises their hands or approximates the behavior
62Turn & Talk Pick a FERB Ask for a break (escape/avoid) Ask to work with a peer (get/obtain attention)Use appropriate words to communicate about overwhelming elements (escape/avoid sensory)Ask for an item (get/obtain tangible)Plan an Explicit Direct Instruction Sequence for the FERBModel how to demonstrate skillProvide explicit instructionsRehearse skillProvide feedbackPractice in natural settingReinforce students for demonstrating the skill
63Response to Behavior Pre-correct with explicit directives Use prompts/cues to signal to the student to use the FERBIgnore negative behaviors when possible (especially attention seeking behaviors)Immediately recognize positive behaviors (especially approximations)Praise others for appropriate behaviors to encourage other students to complyModel positive thinking“I am capable of completing this assignment if I use my strategies”
64Response to Behavior Showcase students strengths “Nina demonstrated problem solving skills when she used a strategy to help her solve the math problem”Encourage students to engage in self-assessment regularly of their behaviorUse transition time as a check pointUse “wait time” after giving a request to avoid power struggleTeach and model self-talk strategies“I can solve this problem”“I can use my replacement behavior”Offer two choices of ways to perform work that will still achieve the objectives of the assignment
65Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Reinforcement Behavior acts on the environment Produces a consequence Consequence strengthens behaviorPositive ReinforcementNegative ReinforcementThere is an occurrence of a behaviorThere is an ADDITION of a stimulus (object, event, person) or increase in intensity of the stimulus (Consequence)Results in strengthening behaviorThere is an occurrence of a behaviorThere is a REMOVAL of a stimulus (object, event, person) or decrease in intensity of the stimulus (Consequence)Results in strengthening behavior
67Positive or Negative? Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement A teacher smiles at a student and praises him when he stays in his seat and pays attention in the classroom. As a result, the student is more likely to sit in his seat and pay attention.Positive ReinforcementA teacher passes out an in-class assignment and a student immediately states: “I’m not doing this” and throws the assignment on the floor. The teacher immediately sends the learner to the principal’s office. The next day, when the teacher hands out the assignment, the student states: “I’m not doing this” and throws the assignment on the floor. The teacher sends the student out again.Negative ReinforcementA teacher passes out an in-class assignment to a class and states: “Any student who finishes this now, won’t have homework tonight.” All of the students immediately begin working on the assignment.Negative ReinforcementA student is answering study guide questions. When she can’t figure out an answer to a question, she asks her teacher. Her teacher tells her the correct answer. As a result, she is more likely to ask her teacher for answers to questions she doesn’t know.Positive Reinforcement
68Considerations when Using Positive or Negative Reinforcement ImmediacyHow quickly the reinforcer follows the behaviorContingencyHow often the reinforcer follows the behaviorMagnitudeIntensity of reinforcerIndividual DifferencesNot all stimuli are equally reinforcing to everyone
69Acquisition Reinforcement Schedule Reinforcer (verbal or tangible) should be given or taken away immediately after the behavior is demonstrated or approximatedStudent asks for help and the teacher gives help immediately.Student asks for a break and the teacher takes away the demand immediately.Every time the behavior is demonstrated or approximated the reinforcer should be given or taken awayStudent asks peer for a turn. The teacher verbally praises the student every time the student asks appropriately for a turn.Student asks for a choice in assignment. The teacher takes away the demand and provides an alternative way to complete the same assignment.The reinforcer should be perceived to be of high value to the studentStudent uses their FERB and earns extra free time with an adult every time they demonstrate the behavior (i.e. 1 minute for every demonstration of behavior).Student uses their FERB and a part of a homework assignment is taken away (i.e. 1 problem is taken away for every demonstration of behavior).
70Putting all the pieces together… Utilizing the behavior pathway to understand the function of the student’s behaviorUsing the function of the student’s behavior to select a FERBUse the FERB to develop a competing pathwayUse the competing pathways to develop a BIP
71Behavior Pathway Diagram Elementary Example ~ JaQuan Setting EventsTriggeringAntecedentsProblemBehaviorMaintainingConsequences3421Sees peers playing with one anotherSlaps peer on the backPeer yells at studentNo attention from peersFunction: Get/Obtain Peer Attention
72Competing Pathway Slaps peer on the back No attention from peers Asks peer for attention appropriatelyGet/obtain peer attentionNo attention from peersSees peers playing with one anotherSlaps peer on the backGet/obtain peer attentionTaps peer on shoulder
73Get/Obtain Function-Based Solutions To lessen the impact of a lack of peer attention for this student, set up opportunities for this student to interact with their peers positively.Setting EventAntecedentBehaviorConsequenceSet up a peer mentoring program with an older child to interact/model appropriate behavior with student during non-academic situations (free time area, cafeteria, hallways, specified time period)Consistent adult supervision1 minute check in with a peer during independent activitiesSit student next to peers who are most likely to have positive interactions with the studentPartner student with a peer for group activitiesTeach the student to ask peers for attention by tapping the peer on the shoulderTeach the student to respond to both positive and negative peer responsesUse a peer model to demonstrate how to ask for attention appropriatelyPractice with asking for attention and responding to peersVerbally reinforce the student when he uses the FERB and students who have responded appropriatelyUse acquisition reinforcement schedule with a student selected reinforcerIf the student reverts to slapping, remove the student from student attention (i.e. time away)
74Isolation or removal of involved student When involved in a situations where the BIP strategies are unsuccessful, deescalate the situation and promote safety..Isolation or removal of involved studentAllow time for student to “cool down.”Removal of other students for safety reasonsUtilize calm, detached responses to studentSpeak respectfullyUse simple languageAcknowledge cooperationWithdraw if problems escalateGive student spaceDo not communicate “urgency to gain control”Contact appropriate support staff, administration, and parents
75Progress monitoring Implement a plan and check to see if it working Ask yourself, how will we know if the plan is effective?What measureable goal can be set for the student and be reasonably monitored?How often should progress be checked?
76Over _________________ (time period) __________ (student) will ______________ (demonstrate what behavior)in ____ out of ____ (measurement) to ________________ (why)
77Quick Ways to Progress Monitor How to Progress MonitorHow often to Progress MonitorChecklistsDirect ObservationsTally chartsGraphsStudent self-assessmentDaily Progress ReportsOthers?DailyWeeklyBi-weeklyMonthlyQuarterly
78Goals, Progress Monitoring, Reinforcement Over a three day period, JaQuan will tap peers on the shoulder when requesting attention in 7 out of 10 occurrences to secure peer attention appropriately.Progress Monitoring MethodChecklist (did JaQuan use the strategy or not) during peer activitiesAcquisition Reinforcement ScheduleVerbal praise after every use of FERBExtra free time with peers earned when goal is achieved
79We also need to monitor fidelity.. Task Analysis of InterventionDid the implementer complete the step?PREVENT Component1.Yes No220.127.116.11.6.TEACH ComponentREINFORCE ComponentTOTAL (# Yes / # Total)Percent Score
80Questions to ask ourselves.. Have we addressed the setting events by using the setting event strategy?Have we used the preventative practices to address antecedents?Have we taught students what to do instead? Have we reviewed? Rehearsed? Practiced? Reinforce?Are our responses to the behavior matching the function? Are we reinforcing appropriate behavior?
81Final ThoughtsUnderstanding how behavior unfolds will help you to engage in better problem solving. When in doubt, map the pathway!Use the pathway to develop your solutions. A one to one correspondence will help you to identify the problem and pick an effective solution.Set realistic goals and progress monitor. If they are being achieved, raise the bar. If not, go back to the pathway.Make sure you are holding up your end of the bargain. A plan that treats all aspects of the problem is more likely to succeed. Check fidelity!
82Acknowledgements PBIS OSEP Technical Assistance Center National Center on Intensive InterventionMissouri PBISIllinois PBISBehavior Management Intervention ManualTeacher’s Encyclopedia of Behavior ManagementOffice of Education – Ventura County