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Prevent, Teach, and Reinforce: Promoting Student Use of Expected Behaviors 2014-2015 Regional Forum presented by: and the Regional Special Education Technical.

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Presentation on theme: "Prevent, Teach, and Reinforce: Promoting Student Use of Expected Behaviors 2014-2015 Regional Forum presented by: and the Regional Special Education Technical."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prevent, Teach, and Reinforce: Promoting Student Use of Expected Behaviors Regional Forum presented by: and the Regional Special Education Technical Assistance Support Center

2 From the NYS PBIS TAC & the RSE-TASC Details… 1. registration 2. flash drive 3. handouts 4. restrooms, breaks, lunch 5. evaluations

3 PBIS Training Expectations EXPECTATIONBEHAVIOR BE RESPONSIBLE  Make yourself comfortable  Take care of your needs  Return quickly and quietly  Tell us your questions BE RESPECTFUL  Turn cell phones off or to “vibrate”  Listen to others attentively  Contribute to the team  Follow up on assigned tasks BE ENGAGED  Share your passion  Take notes  Plan with your team  Have FUN!!!! 3

4 Resources - Flash drive

5 Goals Learn how to utilize the supports embedded in Tiers Two and Three of the PBIS model Understand how the behavior pathway unfolds and influences the environment Understand how to utilize the behavior pathway to intervene and shape behavior Learn how to prevent, teach, and reinforce functionally related replacement behaviors

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7 Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Tier 3: FBA process is initiated when previous interventions tried have been unsuccessful. Tier 2: Small group strategies or low level targeted interventions should be tried and data collected. Tier 1: Strong classroom management and school policy is the first line of defense for ALL students.

8 SYSTEMS PRACTICES DATA Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Student Behavior OUTCOMES Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement Supporting Decision Making Integrated Elements

9 Thinking About Intervention Levels/Tiers

10 How can Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) support individuals who exhibit challenging behavior? –Learn how to utilize Tier Two Interventions to meet the needs of students who are not responding to Tier 1 supports. –Learn how to utilize Tier Three Interventions to meet the needs of students who have not responded to the combination of Tier 1 and Tier 2 Supports. Learn about the SCIENCE behind behavior –Setting Events, Antecedents, Consequences and Functions Learn about techniques to help PREVENT setting events and antecedents from triggering behaviors Learn about how to TEACH functionally equivalent replacement behaviors Learn how to respond to inappropriate behavior and REINFORCE the use of a replacement behavior

11 Data Based Individual Evaluation (DBI) 1.Secondary intervention program, delivered with greater intensity 2.Progress monitoring 3.Informal diagnostic assessment 4.Adaptation 5.Continued progress monitoring, with adaptations occurring whenever needed to ensure adequate progress

12 Check In/Check Out(CICO) Small group intervention Systematic performance feedback Daily organizational and behavioral support High rates of positive adult attention Positive communication link between home and school Sets students up for success each morning and can be faded to develop student self- management. Who is CICO for? Students who continue to demonstrate problems after PBIS universal supports are in place – Students with 2-5 office discipline referrals Need increased levels of structure, routine, and feedback Demonstrate patterns of behavior that are functionally related to obtaining attention Low levels of disruption – Talk out/Talk back – Unprepared – Non-compliant

13 Basics of CICO 1.Morning Check-In (Get Daily Progress Report DPR) 2.Regular Teacher feedback throughout the day 3.End of the day check- out Tally and record points Receive recognition 4.Data collection and progress monitoring 5.Take DPR home and return signed copy

14 Elementary Example of DPR 0= Not Yet 1= Good 2= Excellent Be Safe Be Respectful Be Your Personal BestTeacher initials Keep hands, feet, and objects to self Use kind words and actions Follow directions Working in class Class Recess Class Lunch Class Recess Class Total Points = Points Possible = 50 Today ______________% Goal ______________%

15 Check-in Check-out Cycle Weekly Progress Monitoring Data Based Decisions Program Update EXIT Tier Two Intervention Morning Check-In Afternoon Check-out Home Check-In Class Check in Class Check out Teacher Checks

16 Morning Check-in Consistent location (same place, same time) Begin with positive greeting Hello JaQuan it is so nice to see you! Ask probing questions How was your night at home? Did you get your homework done? How are you feeling today? Address any potential setting events I can imagine last night was difficult. How can we plan to have a good day today? What can we do to make sure we are meeting expectations? Prompt the student to get DPR Reminder of expectations Be Respectful Be Safe Be a Problem Solver

17 Throughout the day Student carries DPR All teachers greet and pre-corrects as antecedent strategies Hello JaQuan, nice to have you in class today. We want to make sure that you are following expectations in class, so lets review what we need to do today. Be Respectful, Be Safe, Be a Problem Solver Establish criteria for prompts and points If you raise your hand, use an appropriate tone of voice, and ask for help when needed, you will earn full points for being respectful. If you follow directions, keep personal space, and take a break when needed, you will earn full points for being safe. If you use a problem solving strategy (look at the board, read directions, ask a peer or teacher for help) when you have a problem, you will earn full points for being a problem solver. Teacher provides feedback (positive, correct action, positive)and students earn points JaQuan you did a great job of meeting the Be Respectful and Be Safe expectations. JaQuan you struggled with being a problem solver when you did not have all the materials for the activity. How can you be a better problem solver tomorrow? JaQuan, you should be proud of yourself for earning full points for the expectations of Be Respectful and Be Safe.

18 End of the day Check-Out Consistent location (same time, same place) Adult positive greeting So nice to see you at the end of the day JaQuan! Total points, calculate percentage and enter data Your total points for the day are ___________ Your percentage for the day is ___________ Daily or weekly reinforcements for meeting goals JaQuan you are working towards __________ Quick debrief with student I see you meet expectations in English and Social Studies. What did you do to be successful there? You had some difficulty in Math. What were some roadblocks to being successful there? How can you improve your total points and percentage tomorrow? Provide parent communication Make sure to share and talk about your DPR with an adult at home and get the DPR signed.

19 Turn & Talk In groups of three, take turns practicing the cycle of Check-in Check-Out based on the provided scenario. Have one participant take on the role of the adult, one participant take on the role of the child, and the third participant will provide feedback on the interaction. Rotate through the roles and stages of CICO – Morning Check-In – Throughout the Day Check-In – End of the Day Check- Out

20 Sample Behavioral Progression With Check In/Check Out 20

21 Tier 2 ~ Small Group Interventions (approx students) Social Skills Groups Provides specific social skills training/instruction, based on the student’s identified function of behavior Can be used to teach replacement social behaviors identified from the school-wide matrix (desired behaviors) Academic Intervention Groups Teach students specific skills that they should be using in place of the inappropriate behaviors. For example, how to use graphic organizers or a step sheet to support work completion

22 Who are these interventions for? Social Skills Group Students who consistently demonstrate the inability to interact appropriately with peers or adults in academic and non academic setting Students who would benefit from direct instruction on targeted skills Academic Intervention Groups Students who consistently demonstrate inappropriate or escape/avoid behaviors when presented with a specific academic task Students who benefit from direct instruction on targeted academic skills to help remove the “academic antecedent”

23 Set up of Small Intervention Groups Focus on one skill intervention at a time – Provide 3 or 4 adaptations of skill 3 to 6 students Min. 45 mins/Max. 60 mins 2 or 3 x per week for 8 weeks Booster sessions every 2 – 4 weeks Attendance Punctuality Participation Confidentiality Good Listener Corrective Feedback Homework

24 Social Skills and/or Academic Deficit? Peer relations Complimenting others, offering help, inviting peers to play Self-management skills Controlling temper, following rules, compromising Academic skills Completing work independently, listening to teacher direction, producing acceptable quality work Compliance skills Following directions, following rules, using free time appropriately Assertion skills Initiating conversation, acknowledging compliments Acquisition Deficit Absence of knowledge for executing skill or failure to discriminate which skills are appropriate in specific situations (can’t do) Performance Deficit Skill is present in repertoire, but student fails to perform at acceptable levels (won’t do) Fluency Deficit Lack of exposure to sufficient or skilled models, insufficient rehearsal or low rates or inconsistent delivery of reinforcement of skilled performances

25 Sample Social Skills Session Time Greet students and introduce session goal(s) 5 Define the featured social skill 3 Initiate “Tell” phase 1.Provide learning objective for featured social skill 2.Introduce the skill by asking how it will be helpful to students and situations in which they could use the skill. 3.Define a specific skill. 4.Discuss why the skill is important. 5.Outline steps for performing the behavior. 5 Initiate “Show” phase 1.Model the behavior (positive and negative) 2.Model discreetly each of the major steps for enacting the featured skill. 3.With student helper, direct a role play of a typical situation. 4.Lead a discussion of alternative behaviors to accomplish the social behavior objective. 10 Initiate “Do” phase with role-play 1.Ask students to define the skill 2.Ask students to state the steps required to accomplish the skill 3.Repeat critical steps for enacting the behavior. 4.Ask students to model the skill in role plays. 5.Ask other students to provide feedback for the student using the skill in the role plays 15 Review and provide homework assignment 5 Provide feedback about group’s performance and specify date/time for next session 2

26 Sample Academic Intervention Session Time Greet students and introduce session goal(s) 5 Define the featured academic skill 3 Initiate “Tell” phase 1.Provide learning objective for featured academic skill 2.Introduce the skill by asking how it will be helpful to students 3.Define a specific academic skill. 4.Discuss why the academic skill is important. 5.Outline steps for performing the academic skill. 5 Initiate “Show” phase 1.Model the academic skill 2.Model discreetly each of the major steps for enacting the featured skill. 3.Lead the student through guided practice of multiple demonstrations of the academic skill. 4.Lead a discussion of alternative academic skills that could also be used to achieve the objective 10 Initiate “Do” phase 1.Ask students to define the skill 2.Ask students to state the steps required to accomplish the skill 3.Repeat critical steps for the academic skill. 4.Ask students to model the skill through independent practice. 5.Provide feedback for the student on their independent use of the skill 15 Review and provide homework assignment 5 Provide feedback about group’s performance and specify date/time for next session 2

27 Turn & Talk Within your groups, develop a “sample lesson plan” for a social skills group. Develop the “tell, show, and do” components of the skill. Pick from one of the social skills Peer relations Self-management skills Academic skills Compliance skills Assertion skills

28 Small Group Intervention Progression

29 Tier Three Supports Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) Wraparound Student Targeted Aggression Replacement Training (START) Rehabilitation, Empowerment, Natural Supports, Education, and Work (RENEW) Special Education Services – Individualized Education Program We will be focusing on the behavior pathway and the development of a BIP because the other Tier Three Supports are multi-dimensional and beyond the scope of this training

30 What is behavior? An observable activity in a human that unfolds in a predictable sequence Most behaviors are externally observable (can be seen) –Smiling –Hitting –Crying –Laughing Behaviors that are observable can be clearly defined and measured (counted or timed)

31 Behavioral Pathway Setting Event Problem Behavior Maintaining C onsequence Problem Behavior Hypothesis: When (setting event) occurs, and (the antecedent happens) the (problem behavior) because in order to (function).

32 Behavioral Pathway 5. FUNCTION Why the student engages in the behavior 4. Setting Events2. Triggering Antecedents 3. Maintaining Consequences 1. Problem Behavior Following events that maintain behaviors of concern Preceding events that trigger or occasion Set of related behaviors of concern Infrequent events that affect value of main. conseq. Hypothesis: When (setting event) occurs, and (the antecedent happens) the (problem behavior) because in order to (function).

33 Setting Events “Could someone help me with these? I’m late for math class.”

34 Setting Events Setting events help explain why people respond differently at different times when presented with the same set of events or triggers. Fatigue (lack of sleep) Staffing pattern Previous conflict Transitions – Changes in routines Time of day – Mornings/Afternoons Day of Week – Mondays and Fridays Feelings of inadequacy Changes in other environments – Spending the night with one parent versus another Challenges due to a disability Hunger (lack of food) Illness/Allergies Medications – Side Effects – Wearing Off Traumatic event Seasonal – Winter Months – Holiday Time – Rainy/Gloomy Weather

35 Antecedents

36 Factors Antecedents trigger behaviors. Observable and measurable characteristics of the environment that are present (immediately) prior to the occurrence of the behavior Physical SettingOver/under sensory stimulation: noise, crowding, temperature; missing or present materials, furniture configurations, work and space organization Social SettingGuest teacher, people present or absent, interaction patterns in or around the student Academic FactorsMismatch between instructional materials/teaching strategies and student learning profile. Scheduling FactorsLack of explicitly stated/taught procedures, absence of a visual schedule, unanticipated changes to t he routine, specific times within the schedule (daily or class) Degree of Independence Mismatch between the level required to complete a task independently and student ability Degree of Participation Group size (too large/too small), subject, location (class, teacher), frequency of participation (expectation too high/too low) Social InteractionMismatch between student need: to communicate with peers and time allotted to do so; to receive peer attention, social status, or respect Degree of ChoiceLack of choice-making opportunities, choice options: too many, too broad

37 Antecedents have a directly functional cause/effect (if this, then that) relationship to the occurrence of a targeted behavior WHERE and WHEN the behavior occurs. – Where= Routines where the problem behavior is most likely – When= Specific events within a routine that predict the problem behavior – Where (Routine), When (Antecedent)  Student does (Behavior) Examples – During lunch, when told to shut up by a peer, Ben hits the student – During language arts, when asked to read aloud in class, Tracy gets up and tells jokes – During circle time, when praised Jessie starts crying

38 Consequences or Response to Behavior

39 They are observable and measurable events in the environment that occur following behavior Consequences are functionally related to behavior. The behavior is said to prompt environmental consequences (response or reaction). Consequences may, in turn, sustain or strengthen that behavior (reinforce), or weaken or suppress that behavior (punish).

40 Common Responses to Behavior Depending on the function of the student’s behavior, each of these responses can serve to either reinforce or suppress the behavior, therefore we must consider function carefully. teacher attention (smiles, prompts, scolds) peer attention being ignored or left alone being sent away getting a toy, or a good grade a satisfying level of physical activity

41 Function

42 Behavior Gain/ Obtain Avoid/ Escape Sensory Social Tangible or Preferred Activity AdultPeer Function Based Thinking “The WHY of Behavior” Function

43 Most Common Functions of Behavior Obtain/ Get :  Peer attention (positive or negative)  Adult attention (positive or negative)  Desired activity  Desired object/ items  Sensory stimulation: auditory, tactile, etc. To Avoid/ Escape:  Difficult Task  Boring Task  Easy Task  Physical demand  Non-preferred activity  Peer  Staff  Reprimands  Sensory Stimulation

44 Obtain/Get Reinforcers – I yell because others look at me – I fight because others listen to me – I wander because people talk to me – I hit in order to get toys from other kids. Escape/Avoid Aversives – I cry when work gets hard because someone will help me – I throw a book during math class because the teacher will remove me from class – I stand out of the way during PE because the other game participants will avoid throwing me the ball. Examples of Function in School

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46 Behavior Pathway Diagram Elementary Example (JaQuan) Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Slaps peer on the back Sees peers playing with one another Get/Obtain peer’s attention (peer yells at student) No attention from peers Function: Get/Obtain Peer Attention

47 Turn & Talk Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Function: Read the following student scenarios and map the student’s behavior and determine the function of the student’s behavior

48 When Sequoia misses her 12:30 medication & teachers present multiple task demands, she makes negative self-statements & writes profane language on her assignments. Teaching staff typically send her to the office with a discipline referral for being disrespectful. Setting eventAntecedentBehaviorConsequence Misses 12:30 medication Teachers make multiple task demands Sequoia makes negative self- statements & writes profane language Teacher sends Sequoia to office for being disrespectful What function? Avoid difficult tasks

49 Setting eventAntecedentBehaviorConsequence Caesar is teased several times about his hair by his friends before class His teacher stares at his hair in class Caesar asks his teacher what she’s staring at His teacher sends him to in-school detention Caesar has dyed his hair three colors & is teased several times by his friends before class. When he enters the class, his teacher stares at his hair. Caesar immediately says “what are you staring at?” His teacher immediately sends him to in- school detention. What function? Escape adult & peer attention

50 After developing a function based hypothesis.... We can then begin to consider: How to prevent behaviors from occurring Teach replacement behaviors Use the principles of reinforcement to change behavior

51 Prevention-Setting Events & Antecedents What is OUT of your control in terms of classroom systems? What is IN your control in terms of classroom systems?

52 Setting Events may be out of our control but we can try to lessen the impact of some common setting events Setting EventStrategy Missed Breakfast Make sure child has breakfast (i.e. school breakfast program) Up late playing video games Talk with parent about appropriate bed times & help them set up a “bed-time” reinforcement system at home Allow child to rest during “free times” Evicted from home Contact the school’s McKinney-Vento Coordinator Running temperature Have child check in with nurse Did not take ADD medication Provide alternative tasks Have nurse give medication at school TransitionProvide child a schedule and use predictable routines Preset a child 5 minutes prior to transition Argued with peer at breakfast Check in with adult in the cafeteria before the school day begins

53 Using Positive Interactions to Prevent or Lessen the Impact of Antecedents Be explicit about directives – I need students to raise their hands and wait to be called on during group discussion. Acknowledge students who are complying with directives – I like how Dylan got his materials out and is waiting quietly. Provide a non-verbal visual or cue to indicate to a student that they need to modify their behavior – Tug of ear – Hand raised Try to maintain at least a 4:1 ratio – For every corrective statement, make four positive statements

54 Antecedent Prevention~ Can I add or modify? Time More/less of the assignment Breaks Chunking Pacing techniques Space Proximity Assigned buddy Study carrel Work areas clearly identified Instruction/ Materials Ability level Hands on Manipulatives Sequencing trays Notebook organizers Enlarged print Interactions Supportive Voice volume and words Positive self-talk Verbal praise

55 We must also consider the function of the student’s behavior when utilizing antecedent interventions

56 Functionally Equivalent Replacement Behaviors (FERBs): Should be as easily performed as the problem behavior Should be taught and reinforced – Behavior skills must be taught as intentionally and systematically as academic skills are taught May become unnecessary once environmental supports are in place OR the student has learned new skills OR becomes more proficient than the inappropriate behvior Problem behaviors are irrelevant when – Child doesn’t need to escape anymore – Child has access to positive events more commonly Problem behaviors are inefficient when – Alternative behavior is available – Alternative behavior is taught Problem behaviors are ineffective when – Problem behavior NO LONGER works- it does not get the child what they want to obtain or what they want to avoid.

57 FunctionReplacement Behaviors Escape/Avoid Ask for help Ask for a break Express need/concern using appropriate words, cards, pictures, or signals Ask for a different setting, choice of an alternative task, or responsibility Use daily or weekly “opt out” card (a pass for an activity or task) Use arm gestures to express need for personal space Request time with teacher or counselor Seek out a trusted friend Attention Raise hand Request counseling time Ask to work with a peer Ask for a high five Ask for a turn Request opportunity to lead lesson, state opinion, help others etc Sensory Use appropriate words to communicate about overwhelming elements Request a whole class or individual stretch break Use predetermined deep tissue activity (stress ball, hand massage etc) Use agreed-upon card, picture, or signal to request appropriate item Request predetermined food or other item for oral input Use self-management statements TangibleAsk for item politely Ask teacher for assistance with obtaining tangible item Select another activity until it is his or her turn

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59 Teach Replacement Behaviors through Explicit Direct Instruction Model how to demonstrate skill Provide explicit instructions Rehearse skill Provide feedback Practice in natural setting Reinforce students for demonstrating the skill

60 Asking for Assistance Model how to demonstrate skill –Model how to raise one’s hand quietly –Demonstrate using examples and non-examples Example – Hand raised in the air, eyes on the teacher, mouth closed, ears open Non-example – Hand waving in the air, eyes wandering, shouting the person’s name Provide explicit instructions for demonstrating skill –Raise hand high enough to be seen by others & hold hand still –Eyes directed towards the person, mouth closed, ears open –When acknowledged, ask in a calm tone of voice “Can you please help me?” or some variation of this question –Wait patiently (explain what patiently looks like) for a response

61 Asking for Assistance Continued.. Rehearse social skill –Practice it through role play Provide feedback on social skill –Let students know what they have done well first and then give points for improvement Practice social skills in natural setting to promote generalization –Practice the raising the hand in the classroom Reinforce students for demonstrating social skill –Provide verbal positive reinforcement when students raises their hands or approximates the behavior

62 Turn & Talk Pick a FERB –Ask for a break (escape/avoid) –Ask to work with a peer (get/obtain attention) –Use appropriate words to communicate about overwhelming elements (escape/avoid sensory) –Ask for an item (get/obtain tangible) Plan an Explicit Direct Instruction Sequence for the FERB –Model how to demonstrate skill –Provide explicit instructions –Rehearse skill –Provide feedback –Practice in natural setting –Reinforce students for demonstrating the skill

63 Response to Behavior Pre-correct with explicit directives Use prompts/cues to signal to the student to use the FERB Ignore negative behaviors when possible (especially attention seeking behaviors) Immediately recognize positive behaviors (especially approximations) Praise others for appropriate behaviors to encourage other students to comply Model positive thinking –“I am capable of completing this assignment if I use my strategies ”

64 Response to Behavior Showcase students strengths –“Nina demonstrated problem solving skills when she used a strategy to help her solve the math problem” Encourage students to engage in self-assessment regularly of their behavior –Use transition time as a check point Use “wait time” after giving a request to avoid power struggle Teach and model self-talk strategies –“I can solve this problem” –“I can use my replacement behavior” Offer two choices of ways to perform work that will still achieve the objectives of the assignment

65 Reinforcement Behavior acts on the environment Produces a consequence Consequence strengthens behavior Positive Reinforcement There is an occurrence of a behavior There is an ADDITION of a stimulus (object, event, person) or increase in intensity of the stimulus (Consequence) Results in strengthening behavior Negative Reinforcement There is an occurrence of a behavior There is a REMOVAL of a stimulus (object, event, person) or decrease in intensity of the stimulus (Consequence) Results in strengthening behavior

66 Positive Reinforcers Giving (adding) –Praise –Stickers –Privileges –Attention –Tokens –Good grades –Free time –Time with preferred person –Extra credit –A prize –An award –Food –A smile –Positive feedback Negative Reinforcers Taking away (removal) –A deadline –An assignment –A quiz/test –A consequence –Criticism –Poor grades Removing an aversive stimulus –Stopping one’s ridicule –Stopping one’s teasing –Stopping one’s yelling –Stopping one’s crying –Stopping one’s whining –Stopping one’s staring –Stopping one’s pouting –Stopping laughing at someone

67 Positive or Negative? A teacher smiles at a student and praises him when he stays in his seat and pays attention in the classroom. As a result, the student is more likely to sit in his seat and pay attention. –Positive Reinforcement A teacher passes out an in-class assignment and a student immediately states: “I’m not doing this” and throws the assignment on the floor. The teacher immediately sends the learner to the principal’s office. The next day, when the teacher hands out the assignment, the student states: “I’m not doing this” and throws the assignment on the floor. The teacher sends the student out again. –Negative Reinforcement A teacher passes out an in-class assignment to a class and states: “Any student who finishes this now, won’t have homework tonight.” All of the students immediately begin working on the assignment. –Negative Reinforcement A student is answering study guide questions. When she can’t figure out an answer to a question, she asks her teacher. Her teacher tells her the correct answer. As a result, she is more likely to ask her teacher for answers to questions she doesn’t know. –Positive Reinforcement

68 Considerations when Using Positive or Negative Reinforcement Immediacy How quickly the reinforcer follows the behavior Contingency How often the reinforcer follows the behavior Magnitude Intensity of reinforcer Individual Differences Not all stimuli are equally reinforcing to everyone

69 Acquisition Reinforcement Schedule Reinforcer (verbal or tangible) should be given or taken away immediately after the behavior is demonstrated or approximated –Student asks for help and the teacher gives help immediately. –Student asks for a break and the teacher takes away the demand immediately. Every time the behavior is demonstrated or approximated the reinforcer should be given or taken away –Student asks peer for a turn. The teacher verbally praises the student every time the student asks appropriately for a turn. –Student asks for a choice in assignment. The teacher takes away the demand and provides an alternative way to complete the same assignment. The reinforcer should be perceived to be of high value to the student –Student uses their FERB and earns extra free time with an adult every time they demonstrate the behavior (i.e. 1 minute for every demonstration of behavior). –Student uses their FERB and a part of a homework assignment is taken away (i.e. 1 problem is taken away for every demonstration of behavior).

70 Putting all the pieces together… Utilizing the behavior pathway to understand the function of the student’s behavior Using the function of the student’s behavior to select a FERB Use the FERB to develop a competing pathway Use the competing pathways to develop a BIP

71 Behavior Pathway Diagram Elementary Example ~ JaQuan Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Slaps peer on the back Sees peers playing with one another Peer yells at student No attention from peers Function: Get/Obtain Peer Attention

72 Competing Pathway No attention from peers Sees peers playing with one another Slaps peer on the back Get/obtain peer attention Asks peer for attention appropriately Taps peer on shoulder Get/obtain peer attention

73 Get/Obtain Function-Based Solutions To lessen the impact of a lack of peer attention for this student, set up opportunities for this student to interact with their peers positively. Setting EventAntecedentBehaviorConsequence Set up a peer mentoring program with an older child to interact/model appropriate behavior with student during non-academic situations (free time area, cafeteria, hallways, specified time period) Consistent adult supervision 1 minute check in with a peer during independent activities Sit student next to peers who are most likely to have positive interactions with the student Partner student with a peer for group activities Teach the student to ask peers for attention by tapping the peer on the shoulder Teach the student to respond to both positive and negative peer responses Use a peer model to demonstrate how to ask for attention appropriately Practice with asking for attention and responding to peers Verbally reinforce the student when he uses the FERB and students who have responded appropriately Use acquisition reinforcement schedule with a student selected reinforcer If the student reverts to slapping, remove the student from student attention (i.e. time away)

74 When involved in a situations where the BIP strategies are unsuccessful, deescalate the situation and promote safety..  Isolation or removal of involved student  Allow time for student to “cool down.”  Removal of other students for safety reasons  Utilize calm, detached responses to student  Speak respectfully  Use simple language  Acknowledge cooperation  Withdraw if problems escalate  Give student space  Do not communicate “urgency to gain control”  Contact appropriate support staff, administration, and parents

75 Progress monitoring Implement a plan and check to see if it working –Ask yourself, how will we know if the plan is effective? –What measureable goal can be set for the student and be reasonably monitored? –How often should progress be checked?

76 Over _________________ (time period) __________ (student) will ______________ (demonstrate what behavior) in ____ out of ____ (measurement) to ________________ (why)

77 Quick Ways to Progress Monitor How to Progress Monitor Checklists Direct Observations Tally charts Graphs Student self-assessment Daily Progress Reports Others? How often to Progress Monitor Daily Weekly Bi-weekly Monthly Quarterly

78 Goals, Progress Monitoring, Reinforcement Goal –Over a three day period, JaQuan will tap peers on the shoulder when requesting attention in 7 out of 10 occurrences to secure peer attention appropriately. Progress Monitoring Method –Checklist (did JaQuan use the strategy or not) during peer activities Acquisition Reinforcement Schedule –Verbal praise after every use of FERB –Extra free time with peers earned when goal is achieved

79 We also need to monitor fidelity.. Task Analysis of Intervention Did the implementer complete the step? PREVENT Component 1. Yes No 2. Yes No 3. Yes No 4. Yes No 5. Yes No 6. Yes No TEACH Component 1. Yes No 2. Yes No 3. Yes No 4. Yes No 5. Yes No 6. Yes No REINFORCE Component 1. Yes No 2. Yes No 3. Yes No 4. Yes No 5. Yes No 6. Yes No TOTAL (# Yes / # Total) Percent Score

80 Questions to ask ourselves.. Have we addressed the setting events by using the setting event strategy? Have we used the preventative practices to address antecedents? Have we taught students what to do instead? Have we reviewed? Rehearsed? Practiced? Reinforce? Are our responses to the behavior matching the function? Are we reinforcing appropriate behavior?

81 Final Thoughts Understanding how behavior unfolds will help you to engage in better problem solving. When in doubt, map the pathway! Use the pathway to develop your solutions. A one to one correspondence will help you to identify the problem and pick an effective solution. Set realistic goals and progress monitor. If they are being achieved, raise the bar. If not, go back to the pathway. Make sure you are holding up your end of the bargain. A plan that treats all aspects of the problem is more likely to succeed. Check fidelity!

82 Acknowledgements PBIS OSEP Technical Assistance Center National Center on Intensive Intervention Missouri PBIS Illinois PBIS Behavior Management Intervention Manual Teacher’s Encyclopedia of Behavior Management Office of Education – Ventura County


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