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Eritis sicut deus. The Serpent’s Promise “Eritis sicut Deus: scientes bonum et malum” ‘In the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and.

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Presentation on theme: "Eritis sicut deus. The Serpent’s Promise “Eritis sicut Deus: scientes bonum et malum” ‘In the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Eritis sicut deus

2 The Serpent’s Promise “Eritis sicut Deus: scientes bonum et malum” ‘In the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil’

3 John Calvin: ““By the decree of God, for the manifestation of his glory, some men and angels are predestinated unto everlasting life, and others foreordained to everlasting death.” * * “It’s in the genes”.

4 Pelagius: Free will - “Obedience results from a decision of the mind, not the substance of the body.”* *It’s in the environment

5 St Augustine: “Original sin … whereby they are made captive under the devil's power, until they are redeemed therefrom by … the blood of Christ”* *“It’s in the genes, but choose the right environment and you’ll be OK”

6 Life expectancy in Britain Of every million born, how many made it to 21 years old? 1601 347 827 1701 498 791 1801 582 317 1901 738 245 2001 989 926

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8 “Ignorance more frequently breeds confidence than does knowledge”. Charles Darwin.

9 Genetics outweighs teaching, Gove adviser tells his boss

10 GOOGLE: sample from 38 000 hits on "scientists find gene for". Scientists find gene for emotional memory Scientists find gene for short sleepers Scientists find gene for fear Scientists find gene for depression Scientists find gene for religiosity Scientists find gene for sweet tooth Scientists find gene for cocaine addiction Scientists find gene for weight-gain Scientists find gene for human language Scientists find gene for premature ejaculation

11 Siamese Cat

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16 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1985 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14%

17 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1986 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14%

18 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1987 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14%

19 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1988 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14%

20 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1989 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14%

21 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1990 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14%

22 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1991 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%

23 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1992 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%

24 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1993 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%

25 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1994 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%

26 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1995 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%

27 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1996 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%

28 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1997 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20%

29 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1998 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20%

30 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1999 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20%

31 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2000 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20%

32 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2001 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%

33 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2002 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%

34 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2003 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%

35 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2004 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%

36 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2005 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%

37 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2006 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%

38 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2007 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%

39 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2008 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%

40 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2009 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%

41 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2010 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%

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44 Relative risk of adult onset diabetes in relation to waist size (1” = 2.54cm)

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49 Obese mouse

50 Leptin deficiency before and after treatment

51 FTO gene in mice - Fused toes, too?

52 Genotype and fat risk at FTO locus

53 Body mass index vs number of risk alleles – rare extremes weigh 10kg more or less than average

54 FTO gene expressed in brain

55 Nature 15 Feb 2015 – 97 loci associated with obesity: most of them active in the brain

56 The race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong. Ecclesiastes 9:11

57 … but time and chance happeneth to them all.”

58 Heritability – the proportion of total variation due to genetic variation Heritability depends on both nature and nurture and can be altered by changing either of them

59 Heritability of speed in thoroughbreds Dry Tracks – 0.4 Wet Tracks – 0.2 Ie influence of genes depends on environment

60 Nearctic – propagator of Myostatin T-> C mutation

61 Average best race distance (furlongs); C:C horses are best suited to short distance races, C:T horses are best suited to middle-distance races and T:T horses are best suited to middle- to long-distance

62 Angiotensin converting enzyme ACE

63 Angiotensin levels and the ACE polymorphism

64 Annual Reviews Ace Gene – climbers and controls; and improvement in endurance after training

65 Spot the athlete: Mo Farah and his car-mechanic identical twin

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68 In each question below, find the two words that are different from the others. Compliment, mock, unwrap, ridicule, taunt

69 In each question below, find the two words that are different from the others. Compliment, mock, unwrap, ridicule, taunt (taunt, compliment, ridicule, mock, unwrap)(taunt, compliment, ridicule, mock, unwrap)

70 Model fitting results for additive genetic (A), shared environment (C), and nonshared environment (E) components of variance for GCSE and nine predictors. Krapohl E et al. PNAS 2014;111:15273-15278 ©2014 by National Academy of Sciences

71 Genetics, not upbringing, main influencer in a child’s IQ, study says Published October 30, 2014 FoxNews.com

72 Heritability of IQ relation to age in USA from adoption and twin studies Age 8–10 – 0.1 Age 18-21 – 0.4 Age 65-70 – 0.7 Ie influence of genes depends on environment again; shared environment very important for young children, less so for elderly (so much for the Eleven Plus exam!)

73 Heritability of IQ relation to family income in USA Bottom Decile – 0.1 Top Decile – 0.7 Ie influence of genes depends on environment; extreme poverty drags everyone down, whatever their genes

74 Francis Galton: “It is easy to show that the criminal nature tends to be inherited.”

75 Monoamine oxidase role

76 The “alarm gene”: amygdala response to fearful face

77 Maoa pmism and amygdala activity in response to a fearful face

78 NZ study – violence, social deprivation (“risk percentile”) and MAOA activity

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80 Steve Jones: 2007 Pan-Pacific Body Building Champion

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82 l l l l l l l l l 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 ENGLAND AND WALES; Murder rate by age. Men – red, women - green Age (years) Murders per million per year

83 l l l l l l l l l 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1200 1000 800- 600- 400- 200- 0- DETROIT; Murder rate by age. Men – red, women - blue Age (years) Murders per million per year

84 Genetics and Justice: Home Office Report on male/female sentencing Men Women Average sentence matched offences (months) 17.0 11.0 Average sentence for robbery 34.1 25.5 Proportion given custody for shoplifting 18% 11% Proportion given custody for actual bodily harm 31% 12%

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87 Maoa pmism and amygdala activity in response to a fearful face

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90 l l l l l l l l l 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 ENGLAND AND WALES; Murder rate by age. Men – red, women - blue Age (years) Murders per million per year

91 l l l l l l l l l 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1200 1000 800- 600- 400- 200- 0- DETROIT; Murder rate by age. Men – red, women - blue Age (years) Murders per million per year

92 Genetics and Justice: Home Office Report on male/female sentencing Men Women Average sentence matched offences (months) 17.0 11.0 Average sentence for robbery 34.1 25.5 Proportion given custody for shoplifting 18% 11% Proportion given custody for actual bodily harm 31% 12%

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95 Galton’s regression of parent-child height

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97 Heritability of body mass index; Blue dots – adopted children; red – biological children

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99 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1985 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14%

100 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1986 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14%

101 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1987 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14%

102 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1988 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14%

103 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1989 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14%

104 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1990 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14%

105 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1991 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%

106 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1992 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%

107 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1993 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%

108 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1994 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%

109 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1995 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%

110 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1996 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%

111 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1997 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20%

112 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1998 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20%

113 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1999 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20%

114 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2000 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20%

115 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2001 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%

116 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2002 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%

117 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2003 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%

118 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2004 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%

119 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2005 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%

120 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2006 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%

121 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2007 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%

122 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2008 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%

123 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2009 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%

124 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2010 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%

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127 Relative risk of adult onset diabetes in relation to waist size (1” = 2.54cm)

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132 Obese mouse

133 Leptin deficiency before and after treatment

134 FTO gene in mice - Fused toes, too?

135 Genotype and fat risk at FTO locus

136 FTO gene expressed in brain


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