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The Inventors Sex Toys, Fertility & Fertility Control Maria Ultreras Hector Ortiz Christina Masso Nancy Shahmoradian Monique Rodriguez Dominique Deville.

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Presentation on theme: "The Inventors Sex Toys, Fertility & Fertility Control Maria Ultreras Hector Ortiz Christina Masso Nancy Shahmoradian Monique Rodriguez Dominique Deville."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Inventors Sex Toys, Fertility & Fertility Control Maria Ultreras Hector Ortiz Christina Masso Nancy Shahmoradian Monique Rodriguez Dominique Deville

2 History of Sex Toys Maria Ultreras “Men, as often observed, can find pleasure or at least release in the briefest encounter. Women on the other hand, take longer, needing more subtle stimulation from a talented and caring lover”(Stanley 208).

3 Early Stories  Coaxer and Tribal Mother  Polynesian Goddess Hina Maria Ultreras

4 Art  25,000 BC: Stone carvings depicting women with greatly oversized breasts, hips, buttocks and vaginal lips.  Fertility goddess  May mean something else  2,500 BC: Egyptian art shows female’s dancing nearly naked with dildo’s held over their heads.  Agricultural fertility ritual  May mean something else Maria Ultreras

5 Lubricants  Around 300 BC: The use of olive oil as sexual accessory. It was previously used as means of contraception.  In 1980 KY Jelly was introduced as sexual lubricant but was originally used for comfort during pelvic exams. Then Now Maria Ultreras

6 Olisbos  Around 500 BC: There are many stories depicting the use of dildos whether for a ritual or for self pleasure.  Cultures with powerful Goddess  Salish Indian myth  3 rd century B.C. in Greek  Middle ages in Europe  European nuns of the 16 th century Maria Ultreras

7 Early Inventions Penis Extenders: Around 300 A.D.  Ben Wa Balls: Around 500 A.D. Swings Maria Ultreras

8 Technology & Sex Toys Around 1200 Proto-cock ring Around 1600 Cock ring and clitoral stimulator 1869 First Vibrator 1882 Down sized 1899 First advertisement of home electric vibrator 1921 First advertisement aimed at men Late 1920’s vibrators appear more as porn than as massagers 1930 vibrator advertisement seized Around 1965 It came back Late 1990s sex toys outlawed Maria Ultreras

9 Technology & Sex Toys 1890’s motion picture 1907 penis stiffener 1948 Polaroid-Land camera Forgotten in 1970 with home video cameras 1953 Playboy magazine Maria Ultreras


11 Fertility Promoters  Three traditional plants:  Pomegranate  Date Palm  Moghat Maria Ultreras

12 Menstruation Hector Ortiz If men menstruated, there would be a National Institute of Menstruation within a year.-Dr. Penny Wise Budoff, 1980

13 Menstruation  Women menstruate monthly during their reproductive years.  In some cases women may not menstruate  Aside form some exceptions, every woman bleeds, but does not die.  Roughly once a month for 30 years  Women have devised techniques for dealing with menstrual flow Hector Ortiz

14 Purpose of Menstrual Blood  Horticulture  Judy Grahn, suggests that the first clothing may have been a menstrual belt and fiber pad. Hector Ortiz  Religious  The words Rite, Ritual and Sabbath derive from words for the menstrual period.  Hunting and trapping  Blood was used to attract or repel

15 Hector Ortiz  Native Americans used tampons of soft moss  Mediterranean women used small sponges  Women of Alor used pads made of dry porous banana bark  Japanese women used paper tampons (8- 12 per day) held in place by a kama (bandage)  Indonesian women used vegetable fibers  Roman matrons used cloth bandages or soft wool tampons  Egyptian women used papyrus. Early Inventions

16 Men’s Appropriation of Power Hector Ortiz  Attempts of male appropriation of women's power  Australia, New Guinea, The Philippines and Africa  Initiation rights  Takeover  Babies were believed to be made of an accumulation of menstrual blood.  Later was believed that babies were produced by an accumulation of semen during pregnancy.

17  1890s British menstrual napkins were made of the same cloth that a baby diaper was mad of.  From 1883 to 1894  LWP(list of women patentees) shows that 16 women patented menstrual devices  1896 Johnson and Johnson developed a “sanitary napkin” but failed to sell because it could not be advertised.  During the 20 th century pads, tampons and cervical caps all prevailed. Hector Ortiz 19 th & 20 th Century Contributions

18  French army nurses  Cellulose wadding used for surgical dressing  Adapted wadding into menstrual absorbers  Kimberly-Clark, producer of the surgical wadding, exploited the nurses invention, and Kotex was established.  Marketed in 1920  Improvements to the pad  Anna Brand  Landy and Seidler  Carolyn R. Mobley  Eleanor J. Fendler  Pamela F. Baum  Billie J. Matthews  Barbara Oakley  These women contributed to how we know the pad today Pads Hector Ortiz

19 Tampons Hector Ortiz  Tampons were preferred by active women.  Internal menstrual absorbers allowed free physical movement  1933 tampax established  Women of the 60s and 70s used natural menstrual sponges.  Modern women have adapted to cellulose sponges  Alice Bay Laurel  In the mid 70s artists sponges  Improvements to tampons  Dr. Judith Esser-Mittog  o.b. tampon  Virginia A. Olsen  Virginia A. Corrigan  Billie J. Matthews

20 Menstrual Caps  Menstrual caps began as old diaphragms to catch the menstrual blood instead of absorbing it.  Leona Chambers  Dancer in NYC  Developed the Tassette with her brother  Barbara Waldron  Invented the Tassaway, disposable version of the Tassette  The tassaway co. was an important player in ending the radio and television ban on advertising of sanitary-protection products.  Nov 1972 Hector Ortiz

21 Menstrual Extraction  Women of the self help clinic in 1971  Used plastic cannula and plastic syringes to suction out the contents of the uterus.  Primitive women used herbal medicine to achieve a similar effect  Squawroot was used to speed up and ease menstruation  As of 1977 menstrual extraction has remained experimental  Women who are associated with this method  Carol Downer  Invented and patented the Del-Em  Lorraine Rothman  Added a by-pass bottle and a valve-and- tubbing system  To prevent air-embolism Hector Ortiz

22 Remedies  Herbs, teas, massage techniques and pressure points that every culture uses as a remedies for any discomfort to menstruation, or lack of.  Herbs have been used to cure  Pre-menstrual tension  Dysmenorrhea (painful, excessive menses)  Dr. Katharina Dalton  1948. Treated pre menstrual syndrome with progesterone  Dr. Michelle Harrison  Dietary treatment  Hypoglycemia diet  Dr. Marcia Storch  Low salt intake as well as vitamin b-6 helps prevent headaches in 80% of her cases. Hector Ortiz

23 Pregnancy and Childbirth Monique Rodriguez

24 Pregnancy Care Herbs used to prevent morning sickness: Lavender Peppermint Spearmint Peach Leaves Star Grass Monique Rodriguez Herbs used to prevent miscarraiges: Blue Cohosh Star Grass Herbs used to strengthen pregnancy, prevent complications: Motherwort

25 Birth Care Although birth was considered painful by primitive women, they gave birth with ease. Two likely reasons for easy childbirth in earlier cultures: Mother's high level of physical activity right up to the beginning of labor Squatting or semi-upright position assumed for birth Monique Rodriguez

26 Physical Aids The Role of women's massage technology has not been given the attention it deserves. Massaging is an important technique used to prevent both perinea tearing and the episiotomy. Monique Rodriguez Heat Heat was used to help relax the muscles during labor. For example, Modoc Indian women gave the women large quantities of warm water, or placed heated stones on her abdomen and beside her bed.

27 Mechanical Aids Different tools were developed by women in order to make the labor process easier. Birth Ropes Foot-rests Abdominal Bands Birth Stools and chairs Monique Rodriguez

28 Herbal aids used for difficult births Balsam Fir Bark Birth Root Black and Blue Cohosh Cotton Root Squaw Vine Monique Rodriguez

29 Aftercare: postpartum remedies and technology Care of the newborn Most groups have some sort sort of cleansing or washing procedure for newborns. Many groups use cold baths. Cold baths could be seen as an attempt to see if the infant was strong enough to survive. It is also believed to strengthen breathing and fully inflate the lungs. Alorese midwives clean newborns with thick juice squeezed from banana bark Hopi mothers sprinkled the baby after its bath with volcanic ashes Tiwi babies were rubbed with milk and then with charcoal Monique Rodriguez

30 Recovery care of the mother Effective techniques for getting back into shape: Massage Exercise and bathing Abdominal binding Herbal treatments Special diet Heat treatments Monique Rodriguez

31 Nursing Technologies Used to decrease milk supply: Red Sage or Wild Alum Root rubbed on the breast Teas of Cinnamon Parsley Leaf Walnut Leaf Huckleberry Leaf Used to stimulateand increase flow of milk : Castor Bean Leaves Wild Ginger Fennel Barley Water Saw Palmetto Berries Maple Bark Cottonseed Tea Alfalfa Baneberry Leaves Tall Blue Lettuce Skeleton Weed Atole Monique Rodriguez

32 Poultices for caked or painful breasts: Elderberry Flowers Grated Raw Potato Star Root Poke Root Alder Leaves

33 Contributions by Women Louyse Bourgeois- First to number and systemize the various birth positions Angelique du Coudry-Inventor of the anatomical mannikin used to teaching gynecology and obstetrics Marie-AnneVictorineBoivin- Invented a new pelvimeter and vaginal speculum. She was also one of the first to use a stethoscope to listen to the fetal heart. Dr. Roberta A. Ballard- Contributed greatly to the treatment of respiratoy distress caused by immature lung development in premature babies and created the firsts in-hospital alternative birth center and intensive-care nursery. Monique Rodriguez

34 18 th Century Birth Control Ways in which women protected themselves from pregnancies Dominique D

35 Contraceptive Methods CulturalMechanicalHerbal & Chemical Dominique D

36 Cultural Method  Postpartum coarse- making sexual intercourse taboo until child is weaned.  Breastfeeding- Nursed children (also serving as wet- nurse) well into toddlerhood to space out pregnancies.  Ridicule- women would be shamed for being pregnant too soon.  Celibacy- to not have sex temporarily or permanently. Dominique D

37 Mechanical Method  Barriers- grass, moss, tampons, and plant-fiber to block menstrual flow.  The Sponge- soaked in sperm-killing ingredients such as lemon. Eventually adding a ribbon for easy removal.  Cervical Cap  Fits over cervix and blocks sperm. Dominique D

38  Deep massage- tipping uterus backwards  Chastity belt- rope signify to males not interest.  Douches- is a method where women direct their own urine to flush out vagina  Acupuncture- known to ancient Chinese, a point 2 inches under navel.  Condoms- Mary Ann Leeper who headed the team. Dominique D Cont.

39 Herbal & Chemical Method  Pessaries- Substances used include elephant or crocodile dung, leaves, and seaweed.  Oral Contraceptives- A potion of some sort achieving anti-fertility.  Musquash/beavers poison swallowed for four days and the women was sterile for life. Dominique D

40 Force Abortion Women would consume Tansy and/or Pennroyal to bring forth an abortion. Both are very beautiful flowers but poisonous to all women. Dominique D

41 Gerald and Selmaree Oster Developed the Body Aware system of natural birth control, with simple saliva and urine tests to detect ovulation. Dominique D

42 19 th Century Birth Control Methods of birth control and ways in which they terminated a pregnancy Dominique D

43 Anti- Fertility Technology  Passaries invented by Emiline T Bringham 1867, Alice O. McCord (automatic stem) 1887, and Eliza Kirwin 1892.  Diaphragm helped develop the vulcanized rubber diaphragm. This device have been called the greatest advance in birth control since the condom.

44 Pregnancy Prevention AbortifacientsSubstance taken orally to end pregnancy. Ex: Turpentine, castor oil, and rusty water. Coitus InterruptusThe process in which a male will remove his penis from vagina before ejaculation. PessariesAn object and solutions were used to block the cervix. It created a gum like substance that prevented sperm from entering. CondomMade of a variety of different materials including rubber and leather. InfanticideKilling a baby after birth Dominique D

45 Rituals and/or Myths  Holding the breath and drawing the body back during sex so the sperm could not penetrate the mouth of the uterus.  Dislodging the sperm by jumping backwards seven times after intercourse  Sitting down on bent knees in order to provoke sneezing  Olive oil, pomegranate pulp, ginger, and tobacco juice smeared around the vagina was a well-known spermicide.  Urine and animal parts and poisons such as mercury, arsenic, and strychnine were also used as oral contraceptives. Dominique D

46 20 th Century Anti-Fertility Technology Nancy Shahmoradian

47  IUD: It is a small "T-shaped" device inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. It was first used in 1908. It is safe, effective and long lasting and must be inserted by a health care provider. The IUD affects sperm movement and survival in the uterus (womb) so that they cannot reach the egg to fertilize it. The IUD also changes the lining of the womb so that it is not suitable for pregnancy and prevents an egg - if it does become fertilized - from developing. It is 98% effective. 20 th century anti-fertility technology: Nancy Shahmoradian

48  For some people hormonal methods are always a source of uneasiness. For those the less intrusive methods can become the better.  Louise Lacey is a California women who took pills for many years, but forced to stop after developing some medical problems. So, she decided to do some studies including the moon’s effects on human sexual and menstrual cycles. She recognized the importance of Edmund Dewan’s work on artificial light for regulating menstrual period. The only difference was Dewan’s goal was fertility, but Lacy’s was anti-fertility. So, she devised a system of using artificial light to regularize ovulation and thus avoid it for intercourse. Natural or cyclical methods: Nancy Shahmoradian

49  It is when women dream-control over both conception and birth. Barbara Brown suggests that human brain can exert control over the body and its functions. She thinks women should theoretically be able t close her cervix against sperm until spermicidal douche could be administered, or keep a fertilized ovum from implanting. She observed a rhythm of change in the skin’s electrical potential that seems linked to the menstrual cycle. This may lead to a natural and simplified method for birth control. Mental/psychological methods: Nancy Shahmoradian

50  One of the more pressing research goals in the recent years is a good male contraceptive. The Chinese gossypol is used as one of the ingredient in one of the most promising male contraceptives et developed. Clinical tests on 4000 healthy men suggest that gossypol may be more than 99% effective in controlling male fertility. It takes about two months to reach full effect and about three months for the sperm count and viability tor return to normal. The side effects seem to be less serious than those seen with the women’s pill. Why not let the men take it? Recent years researches: Nancy Shahmoradian

51 Margaret Sanger and the Birth Control Movement Christina Masso

52 Margaret Sanger  Margaret Sanger was born in Corning, New York, in 1879. Her mother Ann Higgins died at age 50 after bearing 11 children, and Sanger attributed her early death to the burden of too frequent pregnancies.  She had three children, 2 boys and one girl.  She worked as a visiting nurse in the lower east side of New York  She realized that unrestricted births were putting a crushing economic and health burden on working class women.  In 1914 Sanger began publishing a radical feminist monthly called The Woman Rebel, which included appeals for the right to practice birth control. Christina Masso

53  Sanger was under the Comstock Laws, which forbade the dissemination of information about contraception.  She jumped bail and spent a year in Europe and visited a birth control clinic in Holland where they were being fitted with a new type of diaphragm, and she later imported them into the United States.  She returned to the United States in 1915 to face charges against her. The charges were dropped because of the public sympathy for Sanger, because her only daughter died that year  In October of 1916 Sanger opened the country’s first control clinic, the Brownsville Clinic in Brooklyn, New York.  The police closed it down after just 9 days of operation.  Christina Masso

54  In 1917 Sanger began publication of a monthly, the Birth Control Review, and in 1921 she founded the groups she considered “unfit.”  Served as the president of the international Planned Parenthood Federation from 1952-1959.  She also arranged for funding for research in hormone- based contraceptives that paid off in 1960.  She set an example of non-violent direct action. Christina Masso

55 Condoms and the Barrier Method  The male condom is a disposable sheath that is placed over the penis before coitus.  The Male Condoms come in a variety of types, sizes, and even flavors.  It works simply by preventing semen from entering the vagina thus it is described as a barrier method of contraception.  Some condoms come pre-coated with the spermicide nonoxynol-9 which kills sperm chemically.  The amount of spermicide on coated condoms is probably not enough to be effective in the event that the condom breaks, however the presence of the spermicide shortens the shelf life of the condom and increases the cost. Christina Masso

56 Condoms cont.  Most condoms are made of latex  Some are made of polyurethane plastic, and some of animal intestinal tissue.  Latex condoms are the cheapest  They are an effective contraceptive and they also provides substantial protection against transmission of STDs including HIV.  Condoms should be used with a water based or silicone lubricants only. Christina Masso

57 Advantages of the Female condom  The female condom is the only contraceptive controlled by the woman that offers substantial protection from STDs including HIV.  Its disease preventing action may be even better than that of the male condom because it covers part of the vulva.  It can be inserted ahead of time  It does not require a man to maintain an erection during use. Christina Masso

58 Disadvantages of the Female Condom  It reduces erotic sensation and generates nonerotic noises  The entire condom may be drawn out into the vagina during coitus.  Male and female condoms can not be used together because one will be pulled out of place. Christina Masso

59  A diaphragm is a barrier placed over the cervix as a contraceptive.  Lea’s shield is a type of diaphragm with a one way valve.  FemCap is a type of cervical cap that has a raised brim.  Cervical Cap is a small rubber or plastic cap that adheres by suction to the cervix, used as a contraceptive. Christina Masso


61 The End Maria Ultreras Hector Ortiz Christina Masso Nancy Shahmoradian Monique Rodriguez Dominque Deville

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