Presentation on theme: "Europe in The 17 th Century The Age of Reason, Enlightenment, and Scientific Revolution."— Presentation transcript:
Europe in The 17 th Century The Age of Reason, Enlightenment, and Scientific Revolution
Religion Protestant Reformation vs. Catholic Counter- Reformation Rise of Puritans and Anabaptists Vicious sectarian violence throughout Europe 30 Years War:The Battle of Lützen, a Swedish victory, but one that saw the death of King Gustavus Adolphus on November 16, 1632.
Reformation Repercussions Rivalry between Spain and England 1588 Defeat of the Spanish Armada Competition for colonies in the Americas Religious Persecution Revival of the Inquisition’s persecution of heretics Religious wars in France (1560-98) Witch-hunts (1550-1750) The Eighty Years War (1568-1648) between Spain and the Netherlands The Thirty Years War (1618-48) English Civil War (1642-1660) and Regicide of Charles I (1649) Migrations to the New World for religious freedom French Huguenots to Florida – driven out by Spanish Puritans to New England Quakers and Amish to Pennsylvania Roman Catholics to Maryland
Deism Natural theology: Derives the existence of God from reason and personal experience rather than divine revelation or scripture Cultural influences: Reaction against sectarian violence in Europe Growing knowledge of diverse religious beliefs both classical and contemporary Textual study of Biblical scriptures Advances in scientific knowledge – Bible could not be seen as authoritative for matters of science Skepticism about miracles and books that report them “Watchmaker God” Unitarianism William Blake
The Age of Reason 17 th c. philosophers broke with Medieval and Renaissance scholasticism System-builders — philosophers who present unified systems of epistemology, metaphysics, logic, and ethics, and often politics and the physical sciences RATIONALISTS: Knowledge can be gained through the power of reason – mathematics as basis of knowledge Rene Descartes, Baruch Spinoza, Gottfried Leibniz EMPIRICISTS: Knowledge comes through the senses, through experience – physical sciences as basis of knowledge Francis Bacon, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, George Berkeley, David Hume
René Descartes 1596-1660 “Cogito ergo sum” “I think, therefore, I am” “Father of Modern Philosophy,” “Father of Modern Mathematics” Developed analytic geometry Discourse on the Method: methodological scepticism – favors deduction over perception René Descartes. Portrait by Frans Hals, 1648
The Enlightenment 18 th c. movement in European and American philosophy and intellectual thought which advocated REASON as the primary basis for authority Period is marked by: Nation building Government consolidation Systemization of knowledge: academies, encyclopedias, dictionaries Decline in power of authoritarian institutions such as the church and nobility Greater rights for common people
Prominent Enlightenment Philosophers Thomas Paine Mary Wollstonecraft Voltaire Jean-Jacques Rousseau David Hume
The Scientific Revolution Emphasis on experimentation and inductive reasoning Scientific Method New methods of observation: the microscope and the telescope 1662: Charles I chartered the Royal Society of London for the Improving of Natural Knowledge A replica of Isaac Newton's telescope of 1672.
Sir Isaac Newton 1643-1727 Mathematician, physicist, astronomer, alchemist, and natural philosopher Developed calculus contemporaneously but separately from Liebniz Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica: described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion Opticks: discovered that light was composed of particles Godfrey Kneller's Sir Isaac Newton at 46
Neo-Classicism The consideration of Greek and Roman art and literature as “the canon” of art Adoption of Classical conventions into art, architecture and literature Desire for stability and order Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns The Ancients: Greece and Rome established standards and models never to be excelled The Moderns: those standing on the shoulders of their predecessors could see farther – the new could excell the ancient
G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756)
A CLASS SOCIETY The Aristocracy Professionals Scientists Physicians Attorneys Clergy Literati Military Officers Merchants and Bankers Tradespeople Working Class Domestic Servants Hired labor Apprentices The Unemployed: debtors, beggars,thieves Peasants
Commerce The Royal Exchange. Engraving by Bartolozzi. The British Library The Rise of the Middle Class Increased Literacy Leisure Time International Trade Empire Building
Gin Lane (1751). Etching and Engraving by William Hogarth. The New York Public Library. Poverty and Unemployment Displaced agrarian labor No social safety net Education only for the elite Child labor Cheap gin
Societal Ideals Clear hierarchical structures Public life more important than private life Decorum: well-defined codes of behavior Society: importance of the social group and shared opinion Marriage and family as a social microcosm Urbane: the city is the center of human discourse – the country is pastoral, an idealized refuge for renewal and relaxation, or the venue of the ignorant “country bumpkins” Wit: the importance of language used well
Vauxhall Gardens (1784). A drawing by Thomas Rowlandson. Victoria and Albert Royal Museum. Samuel Johnson James BoswellHester Thrale Oliver Goldsmith Duchess of Devonshire Mary “Perdita” Robinson Prince of Wales Social Gatherings
A London coffeehouse. The British Museum Coffee and News Periodicals and Newpapers Addison and Steele The Spectator Periodical Essays Literary Criticism Character Sketches Political Discussion Philosophical Ideas
Literary Salons Intellectual and literary circles formed around women Brought together members of society and philosophers and artists Emphasis on conversation and wit A reading of Molière, Jean François de Troy, ca. 1728
Neo-Classical Artist Social Arbiter of Taste Elitist Moral Intellectual Critic Louis Michel van Loo Portrait of Diderot
Literary Conventions Verisimilitude a semblance of truth Hazlitt: “ the close imitation of men and manners… the very texture of society as it really exists.” recognizable settings and characters in real time elimination of fantastic and supernatural elements Morality Revelation of ideal moral patterns Poetic justice: the good are rewarded and the wicked punished God’s plan is inevitably just Universality Social norms are unchanged regardless of period or locale Decorum Appropriate adherence to contemporary behavioral standards
J. S. Muller after Samuel Wale, A General Prospect of Vaux Hall Gardens Shewing at one View the disposition of the whole Gardens (after 1751). ARTIFICE
Literary Genres Drama: comedy and tragedy Epistle: public letters in poetry or prose Epic: didactic, idealistic, Ode: occasional poem in praise of an event or person Satire: exposure of public and private foolishness Mock epics Mock odes Epigrams: pithy, witty ideas Novels: realistic portrayals of bourgeois life
Social Satire Voltaire, Candide Alexander Pope Mock epic: “The Rape of the Lock” Literary Satire: “The Dunciad Jonathan Swift “A Modest Proposal” Gulliver’s Travels
The Laughing Audience (1733). Etching and engraving by William Hogarth. The New York Public Library Entertainment Theatre Opera Symphony
French Neoclassical Theatre, 17th-18th C. Modelled theatre on Greek and Roman examples Disdained English Elizabethan theatre’s “messiness” and eclecticism Neoclassical Conventions Decorum Verisimilitude Universal truths Poetic: Alexandrines 5 act structure 3 unities: time, place action
Tragedy and Comedy Rulers/nobility Affairs of state Unhappy ending Lofty poetic style Revealed the horrible results of mistakes and misdeeds committed from passion Corneille and Racine Middle class/bourgeosie Domestic/private affairs Happy ending – often deus ex machina Ordinary speech Ridicules behavior that should be avoided Moliere
Pierre Corneille 1606-1684 Known as “the founder of French tragedy” Chafed under the critical strictures of Cardinal Richelieu and the Académie Français Le Cid 1637 Querelle de Cid
Jean-Baptiste Poquelin Moliére 1622-1673 Playwright, actor, producer – headed his own theatrical company Favorite of Louis XIV – troupe was established at court: Palais Royale Theatre Influenced by commedia dell arte and by Roman comedies and French farces – he used these forms to ridicule social and moral pretensions. Le Misanthrope, (The Misanthrope), L'École des femmes (The School for Wives), Tartuffe ou l'Imposteur, (Tartuffe or the Hypocrite), L'Avare ou l'École du mensonge (The Miser), Le Bourgeois gentilhomme (The Bourgeois Gentleman).
Jean Racine 1639-1699 First tragedies originally produced by Moliere’s company – he defected to the rival Hôtel de Bourgogne Most of his tragedies are based on classical themes and tragedies Considered the master of the Alexandrine line Major works: Andromaque (1667) Britannicus(1669) Bérénice (1670) Iphigénie (1674) Phèdre (1677)
Tartuffe Mme. Pernell Flipote Elmire---Orgon—deceased wife Cleante, Orgon’s friend Damis Mariane >< Valère Dorine Tartuffe M. Loyal Officer of the Court a hypocrite a bailiff deus ex machina
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