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Mentoring High-Risk Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators in the Community Kate Walker.

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1 Mentoring High-Risk Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators in the Community Kate Walker

2 Background: Mentoring Of all the criminal justice ‘interventions’ mentoring remains the least well developed both in theoretical terms and the empirical base that supports its use (Brown & Ross, 2010) Some consensus regarding defining features of mentoring: – One-to-one relationships freely entered in to and based on trust; – Typically involves a volunteer to act as a positive role model and to support another individual over a period of time to achieve a goal; generally mentoring is underpinned by a social deficit model (Hucklesby, 2008) – Individuals are viewed as having significant problems or lacking the necessary skills and knowledge to become law abiding citizens (Fletcher & Batty, 2012; Maruna, 2001). Definitions of mentoring – N on-criminal Justice: ‘Off-line help by one person to another in making significant transitions in knowledge, working or thinking’ (Megginson, Clutterbuck, Garvey, Stokes, & Garrett-Harris, 2006) – Criminal Justice: ‘Someone more experienced, guiding, coaching or encouraging someone less experienced in the performance of a task (or a role)’ (Nellis, 2002)

3 Purpose mentoring? Lack of clarity – Reduce offending (DuBois et al., 2002). – Indirect Support (Jolliffe & Farrington, 2007) – Someone to talk to, support (Brown and Ross 2010) – Monitoring (Hucklesby & Wincupp, 2014 ) Evidence of Success – Juveniles (e.g., Jolliffe and Farrington 2008) reviews have found modest effects of mentoring on re-offending for youths and positive improvements on outcome measures – Adult evaluation sparse; Lewis et al. (2007) no effects on reconviction but pre-release offenders reported benefits of ‘confidence and peace of mind’ and ‘someone to talk to’

4 Mentoring and IPV Current study – Examining innovative mentoring service for IPV perpetrators who are: Presenting as high risk or are at high risk Difficult to engage In need of targeted guidance and support due to negative and damaging lifestyle choices Focus of evaluation: – Process evaluation & Impact This presentation focus mainly on process: How facilitate engagement and initiate change

5 The current study Qualitative analysis Participants Interviewed – 6 mentees – 2 mentors – 4 members DVA Perpetrator Case Management Forum File notes & narratives (16 Mentees) Thematic Analysis

6 Chaotic Existence Prolific Offending Histories Disordered Lifestyles Dysfunctional Relationships Psychological and Mental Instability Static Factors Dynamic Criminogenic Needs Who Accessing mentoring? Prolific Offending Histories 66 Recorded Offences Violent (Assault, ABH, GBH) Non-violent (Drug possession, theft, burglary) 66 Recorded Offences Violent (Assault, ABH, GBH) Non-violent (Drug possession, theft, burglary) Disordered Lifestyles Alcohol and drug abuse Poor health Employment issues Housing issues Alcohol and drug abuse Poor health Employment issues Housing issues Dysfunctional Relationships Violence against partners ex-partners, family members Multiple children across multiple partners Violence against partners ex-partners, family members Multiple children across multiple partners Psychological and Mental Instability Depression Autism Anxiety Suicide attempts Anger issues Depression Autism Anxiety Suicide attempts Anger issues

7 Building Relationships Tenacity of Mentor Involving Family Persistence Effective Communication One to One Tools and Techniques to Facilitate Engagement Engagement Hooks Focus on the Future Clear Action Points Quid Pro Quo Children Criminal Sanctions Employment Adjunctive Treatment Catalysts to Facilitate Change

8 Mentor 1:The process and the nuts and bolts of it which is about building a working relationship……the job of mentoring is to build rapport and to get in to somebody’s psychic a bit Mentee 6: Yes yes...I was comfortable talking to them [The Mentors] like....they made me comfortable sort of thing you know....Just by I suppose being themselves being open and friendly. Mentee 5: Just talking to me like a proper person......the way they bring themselves over to you......They way they speak to you they treat you like an individual rather than like treating you like a bit of scum or the like...they are there to help you not ridicule you Mentee 1: I’ve done a lot of time obviously like in prison and the courses in there I’ve tried but cos its always like group sessions I just can’t do it So a one to one basis is fine I find works for me I don’t like groups Mentee 6: I don’t like speaking in a group. I prefer speaking one-to- one. In one-to-one you are more able to put your point across and they [The Mentor] are more able to put their point across to you rather than being in a group. Building Relationships Tenacity of Mentor Involving Family Persistence Effective Communication One to One Tools and Techniques to Facilitate Engagement

9 Mentor 1:The process and the nuts and bolts of it which is about building a working relationship……the job of mentoring is to build rapport and to get in to somebody’s psychic a bit Mentee 6: Yes yes...I was comfortable talking to them [The Mentors] like....they made me comfortable sort of thing you know....Just by I suppose being themselves being open and friendly. Mentee 5: Just talking to me like a proper person......the way they bring themselves over to you......They way they speak to you they treat you like an individual rather than like treating you like a bit of scum or the like...they are there to help you not ridicule you Mentee 1: I’ve done a lot of time obviously like in prison and the courses in there I’ve tried but cos its always like group sessions I just can’t do it So a one to one basis is fine I find works for me I don’t like groups Mentee 6: I don’t like speaking in a group. I prefer speaking one-to- one. In one-to-one you are more able to put your point across and they [The Mentor] are more able to put their point across to you rather than being in a group. Building Relationships Tenacity of Mentor Involving Family Persistence Effective Communication One to One Tools and Techniques to Facilitate Engagement File Notes: [The Mentee] didn’t show on the 28th even though I spoke to him on the phone the day before to confirm times. I called his phone several times and we attended his mum’s address at the time agreed. I have text [The Mentee] since and will follow up again next week. Mentor 1: We never give up I mean that’s the point until.. unless we are told errm or there is a risk that stops us …then we will keep turning up, be very polite err but very persistent and it works it really does work. Mentee 6: They keep coming back and it gives me a focus and something to do. It is the routine it is also about knowing that they are coming every week. File Notes: We have now met with [The Mentee] twice and engaged briefly with his mother and one of his brothers. The discussions had with his mother *****were on the doorstep on the 11th October; she presented as polite and once aware of our potential role, keen to support [The Mentee’s] engagement. Mentor 1: His Uncle ******* has been useful in terms of keeping in touch and we will persist next week. Mentee 6: They [Mentors] keep coming to my sister’s to see me they have involved my sister as well in with the stuff because I don’t...I keep forgetting stuff so they have involved my sister to keep an eye on me. I find this helpful

10 File Notes: He just wanted to not have any future children taken off him and he wanted to see [his son] in some way. He was clear also that he would never again commit DV and simply wanted to get on with his life, see his kids and enjoy himself. Mentee 4: Cos I want to see my child. Mentee 1: So it made me realise it is not really about me it is about my kids. Mentee 2: Helping me look for work...and stuff so obviously like it was like quite good like that I liked what they were offering. Mentee 5: He [The Mentor] just basically offered you know opportunities that I can’t get from anywhere else such as obviously my forklift licences and work things like that. Mentee 2: Saying like how serious like it was and once they said like going on about going to jail and stuff and it wakes you up like makes you think like wow its quite far innit and so obviously you think like wow so obviously I’ve got to start changing so obviously I think that’s what works once they explain how serious it is obviously like you wake up and like you think wow like I’ve gotta start changing Hooks Focus on the Future Clear Action Points Quid Pro Quo Children Criminal Sanctions Employment Adjunctive Treatment Catalysts to Facilitate Change

11 File Notes: He just wanted to not have any future children taken off him and he wanted to see [his son] in some way. He was clear also that he would never again commit DV and simply wanted to get on with his life, see his kids and enjoy himself. Mentee 4: Cos I want to see my child. Mentee 1: So it made me realise it is not really about me it is about my kids. Mentee 2: Helping me look for work...and stuff so obviously like it was like quite good like that I liked what they were offering. Mentee 5: He [The Mentor] just basically offered you know opportunities that I can’t get from anywhere else such as obviously my forklift licences and work things like that. Mentee 2: Saying like how serious like it was and once they said like going on about going to jail and stuff and it wakes you up like makes you think like wow its quite far innit and so obviously you think like wow so obviously I’ve got to start changing so obviously I think that’s what works once they explain how serious it is obviously like you wake up and like you think wow like I’ve gotta start changing File Notes: Identify areas of focus for [The Mentee] to put some ‘energy’ into beyond relationships and work. File Notes: Drive forward discussions with [The Mentee] about his past relationships and his focus for the future. File Notes: Seek work placement opportunities. Mentee 5: I mean mentoring ain’t it is not going to help with my problems that I have had. It’s going to help with rebuilding my life to how I want it through work through confidence you know through meeting different people you know from being able to talk to different people. Mentor 1: the balancing act is that there had to be an element of I don’t know what you call it...quid pro quo or scratching each other’s backs at times you have to give a bit to get a bit..... but there are certain non-negotiables there has to be. And one is about desistance. Mentee 6: Just ermm to keep going on the straight and narrow. So not use offending behaviours and so in return they will help with the housing..... I am like not going out looking for earners anymore.you know......somebody is helping me...I have got to understand that I am worth to help now. Hooks Focus on the Future Clear Action Points Quid Pro Quo Children Criminal Sanctions Employment Adjunctive Treatment Catalysts to Facilitate Change

12 File Notes: He just wanted to not have any future children taken off him and he wanted to see [his son] in some way. He was clear also that he would never again commit DV and simply wanted to get on with his life, see his kids and enjoy himself. Mentee 4: Cos I want to see my child. Mentee 1: So it made me realise it is not really about me it is about my kids. Mentee 2: Helping me look for work...and stuff so obviously like it was like quite good like that I liked what they were offering. Mentee 5: He [The Mentor] just basically offered you know opportunities that I can’t get from anywhere else such as obviously my forklift licences and work things like that. Mentee 2: Saying like how serious like it was and once they said like going on about going to jail and stuff and it wakes you up like makes you think like wow its quite far innit and so obviously you think like wow so obviously I’ve got to start changing so obviously I think that’s what works once they explain how serious it is obviously like you wake up and like you think wow like I’ve gotta start changing File Notes: Identify areas of focus for [The Mentee] to put some ‘energy’ into beyond relationships and work. File Notes: Drive forward discussions with [The Mentee] about his past relationships and his focus for the future. File Notes: Seek work placement opportunities. Mentee 5: I mean mentoring ain’t it is not going to help with my problems that I have had. It’s going to help with rebuilding my life to how I want it through work through confidence you know through meeting different people you know from being able to talk to different people. Mentor 1: the balancing act is that there had to be an element of I don’t know what you call it...quid pro quo or scratching each other’s backs at times you have to give a bit to get a bit..... but there are certain non-negotiables there has to be. And one is about desistance. Mentee 6: Just ermm to keep going on the straight and narrow. So not use offending behaviours and so in return they will help with the housing..... I am like not going out looking for earners anymore.you know......somebody is helping me...I have got to understand that I am worth to help now. Hooks Focus on the Future Clear Action Points Quid Pro Quo Children Criminal Sanctions Employment Adjunctive Treatment Catalysts to Facilitate Change File Notes: I informed [The Mentee] that I had been contacted by [Probation Officer] who informed me about a domestic violence course called SIADA to address domestic abuse Mentee 1: I done a alcohol course as well to get off the alcohol and stuff like that worked Mentee 2: I’m starting anger management now so that’s going to help

13 Impact Positive successes: – Majority (13 out of 16, 81%) Mentees engaging based on attending regular appointments – Majority (10 out of 13, 77%) no further offending – Other positive outcomes observed: Anger management, taking responsibility for actions, removal of chaos Areas of concern – Minority (3 out of 13, 23%) reoffending (IPV behaviours) – Fragile engagement; Of 16 offenders, two declined one dropped out – Pressure points; capacity, conflict with victim’s priorities

14 Implications Evidence that mentoring offers innovative approach when working with high-risk perpetrators Evidence of engagement: – Understand more why / why not work Examine role of characteristics, attitudes and behaviours in relation to high-risk male IPV mentoring Greater understanding of theoretical framework underpinning mentoring – More about facilitating change to get individual to position to start addressing criminogenic needs

15 References Brown, M., & Ross, S. (2010). Mentoring, social capital and desistance: A study of women released from prison. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 43(1), doi: /acri DuBois, D. L., Holloway, B. E., Valentine, J. C., & Cooper, H. (2002). Effectiveness of mentoring programs for youth: A meta- analytic review. American Journal of Community Psychology, 30(2), DuBois, D. L., & Silverthorn, N. (2005). Natural mentoring relationships and adolescent health: Evidence from a national study. American Journal of Public Health, 95(3), doi: /AJPH Fletcher, D. R., & Batty, E. (2012). Offender peer interventions: What do we know?. Sheffield Hallam: CRESR, Sheffield Hallam University. Hucklesby, A. (2008). Vehicles of desistance? The impact of electronically monitored curfew orders. Criminology & Criminal Justice: An International Journal, 8(1), doi: / Hucklesby, A., & Wincupp, E. (2014). Assistance, support and monitoring? The paradoxes of mentoring adults in the criminal justice system. Journal of Social Policy, 43, doi: /S Jolliffe, D., & Farrington, D. P. (2007). A rapid evidence assessment of the impact of mentoring on re-offending: A summary. London: Home Office. Retrieved from Maruna, S. (2001). Making good: How ex-convicts reform and rebuild their lives. Washington DC: American Psychological Association. Megginson, D., Clutterbuck, D., Garvey, B., Stokes, P., & Garrett-Harris, R. (2006). Mentoring in action: A practical guide. London: Kogan Page. Nellis, M. (2002). The 'tracking controversy': The roots of mentoring and electronic monitoring. Youth Justice, 4, doi: / Rhodes, J. E., & DuBois, D. L. (2008). Mentoring relationships and programs for youth. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17(4), doi: /j x


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