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Let’s Argue! Unit 1: Argument

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1 Let’s Argue! Unit 1: Argument
What’s the difference between argument and persuasion?

2 Gender Stereotypes Talks a lot Is insensitive Physically strong
On the erasable board, write an M (for male) or F (for female) for which gender best fits the stereotype. Talks a lot Is insensitive Physically strong Emotional Curious Annoying Lies Bossy Crazy Jealous Before we start arguing…

3 satire “The use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize people's stupidity or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other issues.” (Google) “Satire is a genre of literature, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government or society itself, into improvement.” (Wikipedia) “A way of using humor to show that someone or something is foolish, weak, bad, etc.; Humor that shows the weaknesses or bad qualities of a person, government, society, etc.” (Merriam-Webster) *What words do you see repeated throughout?

4 Satire


6 Allusion “An expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly; an indirect or passing reference.” (Google) “Allusion is a brief and indirect reference to a person, place, thing or idea of historical, cultural, literary or political significance. It does not describe in detail the person or thing to which it refers. It is just a passing comment and the writer expects the reader to possess enough knowledge to spot the allusion and grasp its importance in a text.” ( The most commonly alluded to texts are The Bible and Shakespeare’s plays. (FYI)

7 Examples Chocolate is my Achilles heel. Harriet Tubman is considered the Moses of her time. Eric and Rachel are star-crossed lovers.

8 Juxtaposition “The fact of two things being seen or placed close together with contrasting effect.” (Google) “Juxtaposition is a literary technique in which two or more ideas, places, characters and their actions are placed side by side in a narrative or a poem for the purpose of developing comparisons and contrasts.” ( “Juxtaposition is the act or placement of two things (usually abstract concepts) near each other for the purpose of highlighting their differences.” (Wikipedia; Robinson)

9 Juxtaposition

10 Mark Twain Samuel Clemens (1835-1910)
His father and uncle owned slaves; Clemens would spend his time listening to the slave stories and folklore—he used the stories in his own writing later. Quit school after 5th grade; went to work for a local newspaper, where he penned the name Mark Twain. First story: “Jim Smiley and His Jumping Frog” … It was a hit!; Hired to write about his travels; his tales were also a hit! It was love at first sight between Clemens and his wife, Olivia (Livvy); they were married and had their first child, Langdon, after a few years. Eventually they also had 3 daughters. Langdon died of disease. “Supposing is good, but finding out is better.” -Mark Twain/Samuel Clemens

11 Mark Twain (cont’d) Clemens and family moved to Hartford, CT (You should visit the Mark Twain House!) Clemens’ writing started getting dark-- political corruption and social criticism, such as Americans’ greed for money. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, The Prince and the Pauper, A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthurs’ Court (rich vs. poor); The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (SATIRE on the mistreatment of African-Americans.) Poor business investments caused Clemens to go bankrupt After living in Europe for a while, the family decided to move back to CT until Clemens’ oldest daughter died. They never returned to Hartford. Livvy died in Italy; Clemens lived out the rest of his life in Redding, CT He died at 74.

12 Paradise Bible Serpent God Rib Sin Fruit First
$25,000 Pyramid!! Adam & eve

13 Let’s put it all together!

14 Essential question How much do others affect who we are, individually? Which is more important—the needs of the individual or the needs of the society? Is conflict inevitable among individuals and society? *After reading The Diaries of Adam and Eve, by Mark Twain, choose one of these questions and write an informal answer in your journal.

15 What does a rose symbolize?
Sula By Toni Morrison A few things to discuss first… Symbolism What does a rose symbolize?

16 The Rose that grew from concrete By Tupac Shakur
Did you hear about the rose that grew from a crack in the concrete? Proving nature's law is wrong it learned to walk with out having feet. Funny it seems, but by keeping it's dreams, it learned to breathe fresh air. Long live the rose that grew from concrete when no one else ever cared. Now read the poem… rose vs. concrete (juxtaposition); “feet” (personification). What must a rose be to grow from concrete? How might this connect to the poet’s life? What might the concrete symbolize? The rose?

17 Rose After reading The Rose That Grew From Concrete by Tupac Shakur, revisit what a rose can symbolize. What do you notice? Now, with your group, discuss what the American Flag may represent to the person listed on the card you received.

18 If you were absent… Think about the difference in interpretation of the symbol (an American Flag) from the point of view of an immigrant, a war veteran, a soldier’s widow, a politician, an African- American born in the 1940s, a man fighting in war against our country. What have you learned about symbolism? Symbolism is interpreted based on the context surrounding it and our personal experiences.

19 Share out what your group discussed. What do you notice?
Let’s discuss… Share out what your group discussed. What do you notice? Write a claim in regard to what you learned about symbolism through this activity. Motif: A symbol that is carried throughout the entire text and represents the theme(s) of the text. *What is the difference between symbolism and motif? As we read Sula, keep an eye out for Sula’s birthmark, fire, water and birds! (Are they symbols or motifs?)

20 Diction: The choice of words an author uses in order to best fulfill his/her purpose.
What is the difference in connotation (the implied or suggested meaning) between the following? Girl Lady Woman

21 Let’s try a few more… Flew vs. Flitted vs. Soared Love vs. Passion vs. Romance vs. Sex Boy vs. Guy vs. Man Youthful vs. Childish vs. Immature vs. Juvenile Slim vs. Skinny vs. Slender vs. Thin Inquisitive vs. Interested vs. Curious vs. Nosy Confident vs. Secure vs. Proud vs. Arrogant Lovely vs. Hot vs. Beautiful vs. Stunning vs. Cute Talkative vs. Conversational vs. Chatty vs. Extrovert

22 The Harlem Renaissance
Toni Morrison The Harlem Renaissance Homework: Click the link for the Harlem Renaissance. Write 3 things you learned about the HR and 5 facts about a person mentioned in the clip or reading. (Extra research is expected.)

23 Argument

24 How to Structure an argument
Introduction -gains reader’s interest and willingness to read (or listen) -establishes your qualifications to write about your topic -establishes some common ground with your audience -demonstrates that you’re sane and fair -STATES YOUR CLAIM! *More on this coming up…

25 Warrant isn’t just a cheezy hair band from the 80s!
The Toulmin Argument (This is what most English teachers are looking for… fyi) CLAIM: the argument you wish to prove *Must be both arguable and provable! QUALIFIERS: any limits you place on your claim REASONS/EVIDENCE: support for your claim WARRANTS: underlying assumptions that support your claim BACKING: evidence for your warrants ******************* My claim is true, to a qualified degree, because of the following evidence, which make sense if you consider the warrant, backed by these additional reasons.

26 Let’s Practice writing a claim…
Claim: The federal government should support the arts. You need reasons to support this claim, so change it to present the issue as a matter of values.  Revised claim: The federal government should support the arts because it also supports the military. Better? Let’s try it with the warrant.  Warrant: If the federal government can support the military, then it can also support other programs. The warrant seems weak: you can hear a voice over your shoulder saying, “So, what you’re saying is that because w pay for a military, we should pay for everything!” Let’s revise.  Revised claim: If the federal government can spend huge amounts of money on the military, then it can afford to spend moderate amounts on the arts program. (This will lead to a new warrant, as well…) Revised warrant: A country that can fund expensive programs can also afford less expensive programs.

27 One more… Claim: The federal government should ban smoking.
Qualifier: The ban would be limited to public spaces. Evidence: Smoking causes serious diseases in smokers. Nonsmokers are also endangered by secondhand smoke. Warrants: The Constitution promises to “promote the general welfare.” Citizens are entitled to protection from harmful actions by others. Backing: The United States is based on a political system that is supposed to serve the basic needs of its people, including their health. Some things to consider… -Numbers of deaths attributed to secondhand smoke -Lawsuits recently won against large tobacco companies -The need for reparation for smoking-related health care costs Authority to include: Citing he Surgeon General Possible rebuttal: Smokers have rights too.; Smoking laws should be left to the states Responses: The ban applies to public places; smokers can smoke in private How can we make that claim effective? What is missing? Where should “it” go in the intro.? 8 Mile reference… During the last rap battle, why does Rabbit win?

28 DO now Write an introduction for an essay answering the following question:
Should parents lie to their children about figures such as The Tooth Fairy and Santa Claus? *You may use your notes from last class. Homework: Write an introduction answering the following question: How has society changed since the Harlem Renaissance?

29 How to structure an argument
Body -(background) presents information, including personal narrative, that’s important to your argument -(lines of argument) presents good reasons, including logical and emotional appeals, in support of your claim -(alternative arguments) examines alternative points of view and opposing arguments; notes the advantages and disadvantages of these views; explains why your view is better than others

30 Organization… what’s that?
In your groups, organize the piles. Do NOT ask questions… Just organize them in the way YOU, as a group, feel is correct. What’s the lesson here? There is no right or wrong way to organize your essay as long as it makes sense (is logical) in some way.

31 Tone Mood-

32 Tone vs mood Fancy Dive By Shel Silverstein The fanciest dive that ever was dove Was done by Melissa of Coconut Grove. She bounced on the board and flew into the air With a twist of her head and a twirl of her hair. She did thirty-four jackknives, backflipped and spun, Quadruple gainered, and reached for the sun, And then somersaulted nine times and a quarter- And looked down and saw that the pool had no water. What is the subject of the poem? What is the author’s attitude toward the subject? How does the author want us, the reader, to feel about the subject?

33 Say whaaaat? How does diction contribute to the tone and mood? Before we read The Flowers by Alice Walker, fold the paper in half. As you read, circle the words that stand out to you. Let’s discuss. Do the same activity for the second half. Let’s discuss again. Now, let’s read the whole story together. What is the tone? The mood? What do you notice about the diction? How are they all connected?

34 Walt whitman vs. Langston hughes
1. Read the poem you were given. 2. Take note of the words that stand out to you (diction) 3. What does the diction tell you about the tone?

35 I Hear America Singing Walt Whitman
I hear America singing, the varied carols I hear,     Those of mechanics, each one singing his as it should be blithe               and strong,     The carpenter singing his as he measures his plank or beam,     The mason singing his as he makes ready for work, or leaves off               work,     The boatman singing what belongs to him in his boat, the deck-               hand singing on the steamboat deck,     The shoemaker singing as he sits on his bench, the hatter singing               as he stands,     The woodcutter's song, the ploughboy's on his way in the morning, or at noon intermission or at sundown,     The delicious singing of the mother, or of the young wife at work,               or of the girl sewing or washing,     Each singing what belongs to him or her and to none else,     The day what belongs to the day—at night the party of young               fellows, robust, friendly,     Singing with open mouths their strong melodious songs.

36 I, Too Langston Hughes I, too, sing America. I am the darker brother. They send me to eat in the kitchen When company comes, But I laugh, And eat well, And grow strong. Tomorrow, I’ll be at the table When company comes. Nobody’ll dare Say to me, “Eat in the kitchen," Then. Besides, They’ll see how beautiful I am And be ashamed— I, too, am America.

37 Sula “Plum on the rim of a warm light sleep was still chuckling. Mamma. She sure was somethin'. He felt twilight. Now there seemed to be some kind of wet light traveling over his legs and stomach with a deeply attractive smell. It wound itself--this wet light--all about him, splashing and running into his skin. He opened his eyes and saw what he imagined was the great wing of an eagle pouring a wet lightness over him. Some kind of baptism, some kind of blessing, he thought. Everything is going to be all right, it said. Knowing that it was so he closed his eyes and sank back into the bright hole of sleep. Eva stepped back from the bed and let the crutches rest under her arms. She rolled a bit of newspaper into a tight stick about six inches long, lit it and threw it onto the bed where the kerosense- soaked Plum lay in snug delight. ”

38 “Intelligence is nothing without creativity and imagination.”
Do now: Write a claim addressing the following prompt: “Intelligence is nothing without creativity and imagination.” ~Anonymous With such high stakes on standardized testing, should schools offer more options for creativity and use of imagination in their curricula? *Remember to ask yourselves the 3 claim questions!

39 Some observations & Suggestions
Make sure you explain how ALL of your great points help to prove your claim Just because a word ends with an S, it does not mean the word requires an apostrophe Be careful of pronouns… In fact, try not to use them at all. In academic papers, don’t use the word kid; instead use child Its (possessive); It’s (it is) They’re (they are); Their (possessive); There (location) Your (possessive); You’re (you are) Be sure that you spend your energy proving your claim throughout your entire paper. Topic sentence: A head’s up on the point you will be making in the paragraph.

40 How to structure an argument
Conclusion -summarizes the argument (briefly!) -elaborates on the implications of your claim -makes clear what you want the audience to think or do -reinforces your credibility and perhaps offers a(nother) emotional appeal.

41 All the world’s a stage… the men and women merely players.
Do now: While we watch the video clip, take notes on metaphors. metaphor What is a metaphor? Why are they important?

42 Now try some on your own: The basement floor was flooded.
imagery The baseball player argued with the umpire. The ace pitcher hurled his glove at the mound, then spit words at the man behind the plate. (What’s the difference?) Now try some on your own: The basement floor was flooded. The toddler was angry. The cars crashed. I ate the chocolate doughnut. The painting was an antique.

43 Putting it all together
Listen to the song Strange Fruit by Billie Holiday. Annotate the lyrics for tone (1), diction (2), metaphor (3), symbolism (4) and imagery (5)

44 Questions about sula? Journal entry: What are your thoughts on the book? You can comment on themes, plot, characters, symbolism, etc. Let’s hear it! *Speak one at a time

45 Break it down: In groups, make a poster focusing on the following elements in Sula: Group 1: Diction Group 2: Mood vs. Tone Group 3: Metaphors & Symbolism Group 4: Juxtaposition Group 5: Imagery Group 6: Any other literary devices *You must include quotes and images

46 Review: Please see handout
If you feel you are still an egg, caterpillar or cocoon at writing an argument, please make arrangements to stay after with me. Remember, your grade is predominately based on your understanding of writing an effective argument for this marking period. (If you don’t understand Sula, or just need a quiet place to read, please stay as well.) I will also be calling parents of students who I recommend stay after with me. Sooooo… if you are one of those students who wants to avoid a call home, I suggest you make the plan to stay. I will be here Tuesday (until 3:30) and Wednesday (until needed). *If you are having any issue (skill or content), you must come talk to me. Success can only happen with open and reciprocal communication!

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