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13/02/20151. 2 A History Of Jaywalking  13/02/20154 Now: An Infraction.

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Presentation on theme: "13/02/20151. 2 A History Of Jaywalking  13/02/20154 Now: An Infraction."— Presentation transcript:

1 13/02/20151

2 2

3 A History Of Jaywalking

4  13/02/20154 Now: An Infraction

5  13/02/20155 The Street as a Public Space  Many street users  Trams  Pedestrians  Dudes chillin  Children  Vendors  Carts & horses  …  “Pleasure cars”: playthings for the elite Hester Street, Lower East Side, 1914

6  13/02/20156 The Birth of the Automobile…  Promised a revolution in mobility, independence, and speed  Quintessentially American  Initially restricted to the wealthy  Establishment of auto clubs (e.g. AAA) Model T: 1914 and 1923

7  …Came at a Cost 7

8  13/02/20158 A Struggle Brews

9  13/02/20159 Moloch!

10  10 A Struggle Brews  Intruder / bully must go!  Progress must prevail!  Rationalisation of the space urgently needed  Ahistoricism  Was car’s success a natural progression? 13/02/2015

11   Pedestrians: established right to street  Parents: safety  Police: order  City planners: efficient flow of traffic  Commerce: public’s access to business  Tram companies: low congestion  Motorists: fuckin’ freedom  Car factories: investment in industry  Auto dealers: good press  Press: sensation  Who sides with whom? Allegiances still to play for in 1910s… Stakeholder Priorities in 1920 13/02/201511

12   Criticism mounts…  Move to restrict motorists’ freedoms  Pedestrians, traffic engineers, local business, … Freedoms in the Balance 13/02/2015 Poster, 1923  Motor groups organise to protect their interests  Tide begins to turn…  Judge, 1924: ‘the rights of foot passengers… must be reasserted and preserved. [Motorists] should be forced into decent recognition of pedestrians’ rights.’

13   Anti-automobile  Judge, 1913: ‘The streets of Chicago belong to the city, not to automobilists.’  City ordinances, 1906-1920: limit speeds to 10-15mph  Pro-automobile  Cities paint cross-walks and police deter pedestrians  Ineffective: ‘pedestrians, many of them women, would demand that the police stand aside [and would] use their parasols on the policemen.’  A missing ingredient… Adjusting the Law 13/02/201513

14  Adjusting Perception 13/02/201514  ‘We have recognised that in controlling traffic we must take into consideration human psychology, rather than approach it as an engineering problem.’ Lefferts, 1922  Motordom needed an “anti-mascot”  E.g. Otto Nobetter

15   “Jay”: Midwestern derogatory term for a country bumpkin  Jaywalkers foolish, don’t know how to walk in the city  Redraws boundary between use and misuse of street  How to make “jaywalker” stick? “Jaywalker” 13/02/201515

16   “Jay”: Midwestern derogatory term for a country bumpkin  Jaywalkers foolish, don’t know how to walk in the city  Redraws boundary between use and misuse of street  How to make “jaywalker” stick? “Jaywalker” 13/02/201516

17   Posters, public preaching, radio  Free service for writing reports of motor accidents  Safety education in schools  Boy Scouts’ leaflets 13/02/201517 An Education Campaign 1924 1921

18   ‘The ridicule of fellow citizens is far more effective than any other means which might be adopted.’ Lefferts, ACSC  Detroit school “trial”, 1925  Police publicly humiliate  Avoid precedents from unsuccessful prosecution 18 A Shaming Campaign

19  13/02/201519 A Ridicule Campaign New York, 1924

20   1924 dictionary: ‘one who crosses the street without observing the traffic regulations for pedestrians’ 13/02/2015 Success

21   1927: federal traffic ordinance on jaywalking  By 1930, pedestrians ‘learn to obey the signals’ and ‘jaywalkers are arrested’  Jaywalkers have to admit that they are indeed “jaywalking”  Streets fully transformed into car thoroughfares  City planners conform to the needs of the automobile: space for parking, low-density suburbs, traffic signals and extensive road maintenance 13/02/201521 Success

22  13/02/201522 Success

23   Was the 20 th century’s progression inevitable?  Maybe not.  Concerted effort to overturn public right to the street  Lobbying policymakers / city planners  Psychological manipulation tactics  The legitimisation of “jaywalker” as a term consolidated the practice’s fall into disrepute  In the 1920s, a vocal and relatively wealthy minority established the car as central to the American city 13/02/201523 Summary

24  Part II The Psychology of Persuasion 13/02/201524 Maybe next time…


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