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THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
Before 1500, people believed the Earth was the center of a universe and everything revolved around it- the geocentric theory.
A Polish cleric named Nicolaus Copernicus said that the planets and moons revolved around the sun.
This is known as the heliocentric theory.
Copernicus feared ridicule and delayed publishing his findings until 1543- the last year of his life.
Why would he fear ridicule?
Tycho Brahe left a mountain of data about the movements of heavenly bodies.
Johannes Kepler concluded from Brahe’s data that planets orbit the sun in elliptical, not circular, orbits.
Galileo Galilei created a telescope to better study the heavenly bodies.
He published a book describing Jupiter’s four moons, sunspots and the moon’s uneven surface.
In 1616, the Catholic Church warned Galileo not to support Copernicus’ ideas, fearing people would question all Church doctrines.
Galileo went to Rome in 1632 to stand trial for his book that supported Copernicus’ views.
Galileo read a signed confession that Copernicus was wrong and was sentenced to house arrest. 12
These astronomical discoveries helped lead to the development of the scientific method- a logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas.
This was furthered by Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes.
Bacon urged scientists to experiment and draw conclusions- empiricism.
Descartes developed analytical geometry- linking algebra and geometry.
He believed that everything should be doubted until proved by reason.
In 1687, Isaac Newton brought all of the astronomical ideas together in a single theory of motion called universal gravitation.
It explains that all motion is linked by a common thread.
He believed that the universe was like a giant clock, with all its parts working together perfectly in ways that could be expressed mathematically.
Many new tools were created during this time.
Zacharias Janssen invented the first microscope in 1590.
In 1643, Evangelista Torricelli made the first mercury barometer- a tool for measuring atmospheric pressure.
In 1714, Gabriel Fahrenheit created the first mercury thermometer- showing water freezing at 32 degrees.
In 1742, Anders Celsius made a different thermometer that showed water freezing at 0 degrees.
When Fahrenheit already had a thermometer, why would Celsius create a new one?
Andreas Vesalius was the first to dissect a human body.
In the late 1700s, Edward Jenner introduced the first vaccine- one to prevent smallpox.
Robert Boyle, considered the father of modern chemistry, created a law that describes how the volume, temperature and pressure of gas affect each other. 28
THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN EUROPE
Because of the Scientific Revolution, people began to question other aspects of society.
The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems.
Thomas Hobbes believed that without government, anarchy would reign.
To escape such a life, humans needed to give up their rights to a strong ruler in exchange for law and order.
He called this situation the social contract.
In so saying, a monarch’s power went from justification by divine right to the consent of the governed.
He said that people could learn from their experience and improve themselves.
He believed we could govern our own affairs and be responsible for the welfare of society.
Locke stated that all people were born equal with three natural rights- life, liberty and property.
He said the purpose of a government is to protect those rights- if they didn’t citizens had the right to overthrow it.
Hobbes or Locke? Which is right?
It was Locke’s ideas that inspired revolutions in Europe and America. 41
In the mid-1700s, the Enlightenment spread to Paris, which became the meeting place of philosophes- who wanted to discuss politics and ideas.
Five concepts formed the core of philosophe belief.
1. Reason- Enlightened thinkers believed truth could be discovered through reason or logical thinking.
2. Nature- The philosophes believed what was natural was also good and reasonable.
3. Happiness- They rejected the notion that people should find joy in the afterlife and urged people to seek well-being in this life.
4. Progress- They stressed that society and humankind could improve.
5. Liberty- They called for the liberties that the English had won in their Glorious Revolution and Bill of Rights.
Francois Marie Arouet- Voltaire published more than 70 books targeting clergy, aristocracy and government.
Voltaire never quit fighting for tolerance, reason, freedom of religious belief and freedom of speech.
Baron de Montesquieu wrote about political liberty.
He believed that the separation of powers would keep anyone from gaining too much control of the government.
“Power should be a check to power.”
Another philosophe, Jean Jacques Rousseau was committed to individual freedom.
Rousseau believed civilization corrupted people’s natural goodness.
Are we corrupted by civilization? If we all lived alone in bubbles, would we have bad thoughts/actions?
Rousseau believed that the only good government was guided by the general will of society- a direct democracy.
Rousseau’s social contract was an agreement between individuals to create a government.
He said all people were equal and that the nobility should be abolished. 58
Cesare Beccaria focused on the judicial system.
He believed laws existed to preserve social order.
He said the accused should receive a speedy trial, not be tortured and the punishment should fit the crime.
A few outcomes occurred from the Enlightenment.
The first was the idea that human reason could solve social problems.
The second effect was a rise in a more secular outlook.
The third effect was the rise of individualism.
This was an emphasis in using your own reason to judge right from wrong.
THE ENLIGHTENMENT SPREADS
Women passed the ideas of the philosophes on during regular social gatherings called salons.
One salon hostess was Marie- Therese Geoffrin.
She helped finance the creation of a large set of intellectual books by Denis Diderot.
These books were called Encyclopedias.
Despite being banned by several governments, these books continued to spread through Europe.
Why would the Encyclopedias be banned?
During the 1600s and early 1700s European art had been dominated by a style called baroque.
The new style was known as neoclassical. 74
Musical styles also changed in reflection of Enlightenment ideals.
Music had been dramatic organ and choral music dominated by Johan Sebastian Bach, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ho9rZjlsyY Y
Antonio Vivaldi, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GIzBQA2F 0E8
and George Friedrich Handel. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kuw8YjSbK d4
A lighter, more elegant style of music known as classical emerged.
Three Viennese composers rank among the greatest of the classical period.
They were Franz Joseph Haydn, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lLjwkamp3 lI
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=df-eLzao63I Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart,
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Tr0otuiQ uU and Ludwig van Beethoven.
Do you notice a difference in baroque and classical music?
Many novels, or lengthy fictional stories, were written.
Included among these are Pamela, by Samuel Richardson and Tom Jones, by Henry Fielding.
The Enlightenment spirit also swept the European courts.
Those monarchs that embraced the new ideas and made reforms are known as enlightened despots.
These monarchs embraced the ideas but had no intention of giving up any power.
They wanted to make their country stronger or make their own rule more effective.
Frederick II of Prussia, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II and Catherine the Great of Russia best fit this description.
Frederick granted many religious freedoms, reduced censorship and improved education.
Joseph II introduced legal reforms, freedom of the press and freedom of worship, and unlike Frederick, abolished serfdom.
The most admired was Catherine the Great.
She recommended allowing religious toleration and abolishing torture and capital punishment.
Until a revolt, she had been in favor of abolishing serfdom.
Like Peter the Great, Catherine sought access to a warm-water port.
As a result, she fought several wars with the Ottomans- gaining territory on the Black Sea and rights through the Bosporus and Dardanelles.
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