Tone The author’s attitude toward his material, the audience, or both. The stylistic means by which an author conveys his/her attitude(s) in a work of literature. Tone is an integral part of a work's meaning because it controls the reader's response which is essential to fully experiencing literature. In order to recognize tonal shift and to interpret complexities of tone, the reader must be able to make inferences based on an active reading of the work. Tone is easier to determine in spoken language than in written language. Considering how a work would sound if it were read aloud can help in identifying an author’s tone. 3 What?! Well, who do they think puts all their toys under the tree? … That's... that's ridiculous. I mean, parents couldn't do that all in one night. What about Santa's cookies? I suppose parents eat them, too?
Tone vs. Mood Tone How the speaker feels, the speaker’s attitude Mood How the text is intended to make the audience feel The prevailing atmosphere or emotional aura of a work. Setting, tone, and events can affect the mood 4 Well, you know how Freshmen are, with their huge backpacks and pool passes… Juniors and Seniors snicker Freshman Awww… I feel ashamed and insecure.
Irony The contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant, or the difference between what appears to be and what is actually true. All about contrast, difference Not coincidence! Creates humor or poignancy 5 "Irony is a kind of winking at each other, as we all understand the game of meaning reversal that is being played.” - Barry Brummett
Three Types of Irony 1.verbal irony – when the words literally state the opposite of the writer’s (or speaker’s) meaning “The muse of poetry / Should not know / The roses / In manure grow.” 2.situational irony – when events turn out the opposite of what was expected; when what the characters and readers think ought to happen is not what does happen “The Gift of the Magi” – husband and wife give up their prized possessions to buy their spouses accessory for prized possession 3.dramatic irony – when facts or events are unknown to a character in a play or piece of fiction but known to the reader, audience, or other characters in the work. Aladdin: Aladdin and Jasmine – “Sometimes you just feel so… trapped.” 6
Sarcasm Definition From the Greek meaning “to tear flesh” Bitter, caustic language that is meant to hurt or ridicule someone or something. It may use irony as a device, but not all ironic statements are sarcastic (that is, intended to ridicule). When well done, sarcasm can be witty and insightful; when poorly done, it is simply cruel. Examples "Oh, a sarcasm detector. That’s a really useful invention!" (Comic Book Guy, The Simpsons) 7
Style An evaluation of the sum of the choices an author makes in blending diction, syntax, figurative language, and other literary devices. Analyze and describe an author’s personal style and make judgments on how appropriate it is to the author’s purpose. Styles can be called flowery, explicit, succinct, rambling, bombastic, commonplace, incisive, laconic, etc. 9 I waited five hours for you. Why is your coat so big? So, good news... I saw a dog today. Have you seen a dog? You probably have. How was school? Was it fun? Did you get a lot of homework, huh? Do you have any friends? Do you have a best friend? Does he have a big coat, too?
Coherence, Unity Quality of a piece of writing in which all the parts contribute to the development of the central idea, theme, or organizing principle Create it in your writing Identify the organizing principle and unity of works you read (Woman Warrior) 10
Pacing Definition The movement of a literary piece from one point or one section to another Effects Fast paced texts: urgency, excitement Slow paced texts: didactic, deliberate Sometimes creates juxtapositions Three years of silence bullying girl in bathroom Pacing at the beginning of Elf Buddy playing basketball Buddy’ jock strap Buddy hitting head 11
Didactic Definition From the Greek, didactic literally means “teaching.” Didactic texts have the primary aim of teaching or instructing, especially the teaching of moral or ethical principles. Examples “Read not to contradict and confute; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested” – Sir Francis Bacon 12 THE BEST WAY TO SPREAD CHRISTMAS CHEER IS SINGING LOUD FOR ALL TO HEAR!
Ambiguity Definition The multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence, or passage. Examples “I can't tell you how much I enjoyed meeting your husband.” The speaker’s stand in the “Whiskey Speech” 13
Ornate Definition Uses long complicated sentences, elaborate figures of speech, parallelism, uncommon allusions, and diction Example “Of Mans First Disobedience, and the Fruit Of that Forbidden Tree, whose mortal taste Brought Death into the World, and all our woe, With loss of Eden, till one greater Man Restore us, and regain the blissful Seat, Sing Heav'nly Muse, that on the secret top Of Oreb, or of Sinai, didst inspire That Shepherd, who first taught the chosen Seed, In the Beginning how the Heav'ns and Earth Rose out of Chaos…” – John Milton 14 You have a very pretty face! You should be on a Christmas card!
Lyrical Definition Songlike; characterized by emotions, subjectivity, and imagination Examples “She said I would grow up a wife and a slave… … The call would come from a bird that flew over our roof… The bird would cross the sun and lift into the mountains… there parting the mist briefly that swirled opaque again… … My American life has been such a disappointment.” 15
Verisimilitude Definition The quality or state of appearing to be true When art attempts to reflect reality Examples Kingston’s depiction of the conditions inside the family’s laundry, as opposed to her descriptions of Ts’ai Yen’s lifestyle. 16
Atmosphere Definition The emotional nod created by the entirety of a literary work setting the author’s choice of objects that are described weather Frequently atmosphere foreshadows events or creates a mood. Terms “I had tried to get out of that cabin many a time, but I couldn't find no way. There warn't a window to it big enough for a dog to get through. I couldn't get up the chimbly; it was too narrow. The door was thick, solid oak slabs.” – Mark Twain 17
Genre The major category into which a literary work fits. Basic divisions of literature are prose, poetry, and drama. Prose can be divided into fiction (novels and short stories) or nonfiction (essays, biographies, autobiographies, etc.). In prose the printer determines the length of the line; in poetry, the poet determines the length of the line. Poetry can be divided into lyric, dramatic, narrative, epic, etc. Drama can be divided into tragedy, comedy, melodrama, farce, etc. On the AP language exam, expect the majority of the passages to be from the following genres: autobiography, biography, memoirs, diaries, criticism, essays, and journalistic, political, scientific, and nature writing. There is very rarely, but occasionally, fiction or poetry. generic conventions – This term describes traditions for each genre. 19 We Elves try to stick to the four basic food groups: Candy, candy canes, candy corns and syrup.
Allegory A symbolic story Symbol – something that represents itself and something else A story that can be read on two levels The allegorical meaning usually deals with moral truth or a generalization about human existence. Example: Pilgrim’s Progress 20
Homily Definition This term literally means “sermon,” but more informally, it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice. 21
Narrative The telling of a story or an account of an event or series of events. Your job is to determine why the speaker chose to use the narrative form. 22
Parody A work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect and/or ridicule. It exploits peculiarities of an author’s expression (propensity to use too many parentheses, certain favorite words, etc.) Well-written parody offers enlightenment about the original, but poorly written parody offers only ineffectual imitation. Usually an audience must grasp literary allusion and understand the work being parodied in order to fully appreciate the nuances of the newer work. 23
Satire A work that targets human vices and follies or social institutions and conventions for reform or ridicule. Satire is best seen as a style of writing rather than a purpose for writing. Often humorous, is thought provoking and insightful about the human condition. 24 Satirical devices: irony, wit, parody, caricature, hyperbole, understatement, and sarcasm.
Common Genres Romantic Includes remote/imaginative instances Coincidences Gothic Includes medieval, wild, or mysterious elements Often dark or macabre Realism Presentation of details of actual life 25 I passed through the seven levels of the Candy Cane forest, through the sea of swirly twirly gum drops, and then I walked through the Lincoln Tunnel.