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Introduction to Satire. Satire: Bowl of Mixed Fruits 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Satire. Satire: Bowl of Mixed Fruits 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Satire

2 Satire: Bowl of Mixed Fruits 2

3 DEFINITION OF “SATIRE”  The word satire comes from the Latin satura meaning a dish filled with mixed fruits.  This was the usual dessert tray after a banquet, and an early meaning for the word was “to be well fed” as seen in such cognates as sated, saturated, and satisfied. 3

4 Satire  Satire is a literary genre that uses irony, wit, and sometimes sarcasm to expose humanity’s vices and foibles, giving impetus, or momentum, to change or reform through ridicule.  It is a manner of writing that mixes a critical attitude with wit and humor in an effort to improve mankind and human institutions. 

5 Teenage Girl Blossoming into beautiful Object  blossoming-into-beautiful-object,31061/ blossoming-into-beautiful-object,31061/  What statement does this article try to make concerning mankind or human institutions?

6 Satire  While some writers and commentators use a serious tone to persuade their audiences to accept their perspective on various issues, some writers specifically use humor to convey a serious message.

7 Satire

8 INFORMAL VS. FORMAL SATIRE  Satire can be divided into two basic types: informal and indirect, as in stories, poems, plays, or novels; and direct or formal, in which the satirist speaks directly to readers or listeners.  Because direct satire is more efficient, it is the kind most likely to be presented by comedians. 8

9 Types of Direct Satire  Horatian satire is a type of direct satire which pokes fun at human foibles with a witty even indulgent tone.  Juvenalian satire is a type of direct satire which denounces, sometimes with invective, human vice and error in dignified and solemn tones.

10 YOLO   What statement does this article try to make concerning mankind or human institutions?  Does it use Horatian or Juvenalian satire? Explain.

11 Horatian Satire  This type of satire is named after the Roman satirist Horatian.  It seeks to criticize, rather than attack, immorality or stupidity.  In general, Horatian satire is gentler, more sympathetic, and more tolerant of human folly.  Unlike Juvenalian satire, it serves to make us laugh at human folly as opposed to holding our failures up for needling.  Horatian satire tends to ridicule human folly in general or by type rather than attack specific persons.  It tends to produce a smile.

12 Horatian Satire

13 Juvenalian Satire  This type of satire is named after the Roman satirist Juvenal.  It is harsher than Horatian satire because it often attacks and shows contempt for people.  Often, it seeks to address some evil in society through scorn and ridicule.  The Juvenalian satirist approaches his work in a more serious manner and uses dignified language to attack erroneous thinking or vice.  In this way Juvenalian satire evokes feelings of scorn, shock, and righteous indignation in the mind of the reader.

14 Juvenalian Satire

15 Homer simpson votes 2012   What statement does this article try to make concerning mankind or human institutions?  Does it use Horatian or Juvenalian satire? Explain.

16 SATIRE AND THE SHAMING PROCESS  Matthew Hodgart in Satire wrote that in ancient Eskimo cultures, satirical prose and rhyme were used to shame individuals who had violated community standards.  The punishment was worse than a physical punishment because the criminal would be made to look foolish while the other villagers watched. 16

17  Hodgart also wrote that when going to war, the ancient Arabs would send a satirist from both sides into battle to see which satirist could be the most clever.  The morale of the two armies would be determined by the skill of their satirists, and occasionally a humiliated army would simply give up and retreat.  Today Rap, HipHop and and other types of “language play” use satire in similar ways. 17

18  Shaming penalties are also meted out by cartoonists, comedians, and writers who use the mass media to make fun of individuals who have gone against behavioral codes, whether in business, sex, or politics.  Although most such jokes have as their immediate target one or two individuals who are involved in current scandals, the goal of the satirist is to capitalize on the public’s interest in a current event to shape society’s long-term attitudes and behaviors. 18

19 SATIRE AS A SOCIAL CORRECTIVE  Edgar Johnson in The Anatomy of Satire praises satire as a corrective for bad behavior. “If we ever become civilized,” he writes, “It will probably be satire almost as much as poetry that will have accomplished it.”  Arthur Pollard in Satire says that satirists move readers to criticize and condemn through “various emotions ranging from laughter through ridicule, contempt and anger to hate.” The feelings that are evoked will depend on the seriousness of the faults being attached as well as the author’s view of “the gap between the ideal and reality.” 19

20 Feel like I’m fixin’ to die =true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active  What statement does this article try to make concerning mankind or human institutions?  What is the intent of this song>?  Does it use Horatian or Juvenalian satire? Explain.

21 SATIRE VS. GALLOWS HUMOR  Satirists may use their humor to inspire reform and change, or they may use it to promote the status quo.  If the creators of satire don’t have a reform or a solution in mind but are simply holding up an aspect of the world as ridiculous, then they are creating irony or gallows humor rather than satire. 21

22 Girl you wish you hadn’t started a conversation with…  https://screen.yahoo.com/weekend-girl-wish-hadnt- started html https://screen.yahoo.com/weekend-girl-wish-hadnt- started html  Satire or Gallows Humor? Explain.

23 Britney spears  Satire or Gallows Humor? Explain

24 Characteristics of Satiric Writing  The following slides describe the various characteristics that often appear in satiric writing. Irony Hyberbole Litotoes Caricture Wit Sarcasam Ridicule Parody Invective

25 Irony  Irony is a mode of expression, through words (verbal irony) or events (irony of situation), conveying a reality different from and usually opposite to appearance or expectation.  The surprise recognition by the audience often produces a comic effect, making irony often funny.

26 Irony  When a text intended to be ironic does not seem as such, the effect can be disastrous.  To be an effective piece of sustained irony, there must be some sort of audience tip-off, through style, tone, use of clear exaggeration, or other device.

27 Irony

28 Hyperbole  Hyperbole is deliberate exaggeration to achieve an effect; overstatement.

29 Litotes  Litotes are a form of understatement that involves making an affirmative point by denying its opposite.  For Example:  “Being tortured with fire must have been somewhat uncomfortable.”  “Rap videos with dancers in them are not uncommon.“  “There are a few Starbucks in America."

30 Caricature  A caricature is an exaggeration or other distortion of an individual's prominent features or characteristics to the point of making that individual appear ridiculous.  The term is applied more often to graphic representations than to literary ones.

31 Caricature

32 Wit  Wit is most commonly understood as clever expression, whether aggressive or harmless; that is, with or without derogatory intent toward someone or something in particular.  We also tend to think of wit as being characterized by a mocking or paradoxical quality, evoking laughter through apt phrasing.

33 Wit

34 Sarcasm  Sarcasm is intentional derision, generally directed at another person and intended to hurt.  The term comes from a Greek word meaning “to tear flesh like dogs” and signifies a cutting remark.  Sarcasm usually involves obvious, verbal irony, achieving its effect by jeeringly stating the opposite of what is meant so as to heighten the insult.

35 Sarcasm

36 Ridicule  Ridicule is the use of words intended to belittle a person or idea and arouse contemptuous laughter.  The goal is to condemn or criticize by making the thing, idea, or person seem laughable and ridiculous.

37 Parody  A parody is an imitation of an author or his/her work with the idea of ridiculing the author, his/her ideas, or the work itself.  A parodist exploits the peculiarities of an author’s expression—the propensity to use too many parentheses, certain favorite words, or other elements of the author’s style.

38 Parody  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w-0TEJMJOhk https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w-0TEJMJOhk

39 Invective  Invective is speech or writing that abuses, denounces, or attacks. It can be directed against a person, cause, idea, or system.  It employs a heavy use of negative emotive language.  For Example: “I cannot but conclude the bulk of your natives to be the most pernicious race of little odious vermin that nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the earth.” (Swift, Gulliver’s Travels)

40 Invective  Invective is speech or writing that abuses, denounces, or attacks. It can be directed against a person, cause, idea, or system.  It employs a heavy use of negative emotive language.  For Example: “I cannot but conclude the bulk of your natives to be the most pernicious race of little odious vermin that nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the earth.” (Swift, Gulliver’s Travels)

41 Invective

42 SOCIAL SATIRE  There are three types of social satirists, the Instigator, The Politico, and The Sage. 42

43 UTOPIAS AND DISTOPIAS  A technique often used in satirical novels is the contrast between utopian and dystopian societies.  The author usually introduces what at first appears to be a utopian society, but which the reader soon realizes is actually grotesque or dystopian. 43

44 Pair Practice  Watch the following video:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MOXQo 7nURs0  As you watch, jot down all of the various characteristics of satire you see in the video.  Then, determine whether the video is Horatian or Juvenalian satire and write a sentence or two explaining why.

45 Your Turn  Read “Let’s Hear it for the Cheerleaders,” As you read, mark the text for areas you find funny.  Then explain why you thought each was funny, and interpret what each quote you’ve indicated is saying.  Determine which terms from our lesson best fit the examples of humor you identified.  Finally, respond to the following prompt in a five sentence minimum paragraph:  How does David Bouchier’s article fit the definition of satire? Support your answer with specific evidence from the text.


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