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Athena In Greek mythology, Athena (Greek: Ἀ θην ᾶ, Athēnâ, or Ἀ θήνη, Athénē; Doric: Ἀ σάνα, Asána) was the goddess of civilization, specifically wisdom,

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Presentation on theme: "Athena In Greek mythology, Athena (Greek: Ἀ θην ᾶ, Athēnâ, or Ἀ θήνη, Athénē; Doric: Ἀ σάνα, Asána) was the goddess of civilization, specifically wisdom,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Athena In Greek mythology, Athena (Greek: Ἀ θην ᾶ, Athēnâ, or Ἀ θήνη, Athénē; Doric: Ἀ σάνα, Asána) was the goddess of civilization, specifically wisdom, weaving, crafts, and war. Athena's wisdom encompasses the technical knowledge employed in weaving, metal- working, and war, but also includes the cunning intelligence (metis) of such trickster figures as Odysseus. Owl and olive trees are sacred to her. She is attended by an owl, wears a goatskin breastplate called the Aegis given to her by her father, Zeus, and is accompanied by the goddess of victory, Nike. She is often shown helmeted and with a shield bearing the Gorgon Medusa's head, a votive gift of Perseus. Athena is an armed warrior goddess, and appears in Greek mythology as a helper of many heroes, including Heracles, Jason, and Odysseus. She never had a consort or lover, and thus was often known as Athena Parthenos ("Athena the virgin"), hence her most famous temple, the Parthenon, on the Acropolis in Athens. In her role as a protector of the city, Athena was worshipped throughout the Greek world as Athena Polias ("Athena of the city"). She had a special relationship with Athens, as is shown by the etymological connection of the names of the goddess and the city.

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3 Athena is associated with Athens, a plural name because it was the place where she presided over her sisterhood, the Athenai, in earliest times. Athena was probably already a goddess in the Aegean in prehistoric times.There is evidence that in early times, Athena was an owl herself, or a bird goddess in general. In Book 3 of the Odyssey, she takes the form of a sea-eagle. Her tasseled aegis may be the remnants of wings: she is depicted with wings on Archaic red-figure pottery.

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5 Athena is associated with Athens, a plural name because it was the place where she presided over her sisterhood, the Athenai, in earliest times. Athena was probably already a goddess in the Aegean in prehistoric times.There is evidence that in early times, Athena was an owl herself, or a bird goddess in general. In Book 3 of the Odyssey, she takes the form of a sea-eagle. Her tasseled aegis may be the remnants of wings: she is depicted with wings on Archaic red-figure pottery.

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7 Fragments attributed to the semi-legendary Phoenician historian Sanchuniathon, said to have written before the Trojan war, make Athena the daughter of Cronus, a king of Byblos who is said to have visited 'the inhabitable world' and bequeathed Attica to Athena.

8 In the Olympian pantheon, Athena was remade as the favorite daughter of Zeus, born fully armed from his forehead. The story of her birth comes in several versions. In the one most commonly cited, Zeus lay with Metis, the goddess of crafty thought and wisdom, but immediately feared the consequences. It had been prophesied that Metis would bear children more powerful than the sire,even Zeus himself. In order to forestall these dire consequences, Zeus transformed Metis into a fly and swallowed her immediately after lying with her. He was too late: Metis had already conceived a child. Metis immediately began making a helmet and robe for her fetal daughter. The hammering as she made the helmet caused Zeus great pain and Prometheus, Hephaestus, Hermes or Palaemon (depending on the sources examined) cleaved Zeus's head with the double-headed Minoan axe (labrys). Athena leaped from Zeus's head, fully grown and armed, and Zeus was none the worse for the experience.

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11 Athena was patron of the crafts, wisdom and battle. Unlike Ares, who was hot-headed in battle (as well as cowardly), Athena's domain was strategy and tactics. She took the side of the Greeks in the war against Troy. Following the Trojan war, Athena assisted Odysseus on his journey home, for Odysseus had angered Poseidon, god of the sea, by blinding his son, Polyphemus the Cyclops.

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13 Athena, known to the Romans as Minerva, was born of one of the many liasons of Zeus with the goddesses of Mount Olympus.

14 Zeus lay with Metis, the goddess of thought, but immediately feared the consequences. It had been prophesised that Metis would bear children more powerful than Zeus himself. In order to forestall these dire consequences, Zeus swallowed Metis immediately after laying with her. He was already too late: Metis immediately conceived a child. While the exact circumstances are unclear, shortly afterwards either Prometheus, Hephaestus, Hermes or Palamoan (depending on the sources examined) cleaved Zeus's head with an axe at the the river Triton. Athena leaped from Zeus's head, fully armed, and Zeus was none the worse for the experience.

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16 Athena became the patron goddess of the city of Athens, in a competition with Poseidon. Poseidon offered the Athenians a pool of salt, whereas Athena offered them an olive tree. The Athenians accepted the olive tree and along with it Athena as their patron. This is thought to remember a clash between the inhabitants during Mycenaean times and newer immigrants. It is interesting to note that Athens at its height was a significant sea power, at one point defeating the Persian fleet at Salamis in a sea battle. Athena was also the patron goddess of several other cities, notably Sparta. Athena is usually portrayed wearing full armor and a shield, and carrying a lance. It is in this posture that she was depicted in Phidias's famous golden statue of her, now lost to history, in the Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis.

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23 Athena is also often depicted with an owl (a symbol of wisdom) sitting on one of her shoulders. It is interesting to note that while Homer's epithet for Athena is usually translated "owl-eyed", is can also be translated as "grey-eyed" or "wise- eyed". Nana Mouskouri_greek_music - Athina


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