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©American Society of Clinical Oncology 2007 Initial Hormonal Management of Androgen-Sensitive Metastatic, Recurrent, or Progressive Prostate Cancer: 2007 Update Clinical Practice Guideline
©American Society of Clinical Oncology 2007 Introduction ASCO convened the Metastatic Prostate Cancer Expert Panel to review and update the 2004 recommendations for the initial hormonal management of androgen-sensitive, metastatic, recurrent, or progressive prostate cancer. The Expert Panel used an evidence-based strategy to form consensus on standard initial treatment options, anti-androgens as monotherapy, combined androgen blockade, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), and intermittent androgen blockade. This Update addresses the palliation of prostate cancer using ADT when this form of therapy is considered the most appropriate initial treatment option.
©American Society of Clinical Oncology 2007 Guideline Methodology: Systematic Review The Expert Panel completed a review and analysis of data published since January 2003 to March 2006: MEDLINE Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Physician Data Query Clinical Trials Database
©American Society of Clinical Oncology 2007 Guideline Methodology (cont’d): Panel Members Howard I. Scher, MD, Co-chairMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Charles L. Bennett, MD, PhD, Co-chairVA Chicago Health Care System-Lakeside & The Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University Edgar Ben-Josef, MDWayne State University D. Andrew Loblaw, MD, MScSunnybrook Health Sciences Centre David S. Mendelson, MDPremiere Oncology of Arizona Richard Middleton, MDUniversity of Utah Medical School Robert Nam, MD, MScSunnybrook Health Sciences Centre Thomas J. Smith, MDMassey Cancer Center, Medical College of Virginia Stewart A. Sharp, MDDanville Hematology & Oncology, Inc James Talcott, MD, MPHMassachusetts General Hospital Mary-Ellen Taplin, MDDana-Farber Cancer Institute Katherine S. Virgo, PhD, MBASaint Louis University & Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center Nicholas J. Vogelzang, MDUniversity of Chicago Cancer Research Center James L. Wade, III, MDCancer Care Specialists of Central Illinois
©American Society of Clinical Oncology 2007 Background Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common form of non-skin cancer in American men and the second leading cause of cancer death PCa can exist without death for up to a decade or more and many men with the disease die of other causes
©American Society of Clinical Oncology 2007 Background (cont’d) Surveillance or watchful waiting may appeal to men who can tolerate the knowledge of untreated cancer ADT palliation is the standard first-line treatment for patients with metastatic, recurrent or progressive disease. ADT palliation includes: Surgical or pharmacologic castration Anti-androgen therapy Combination of both Shared decision-making between patients and physicians is necessary for optimal use of ADT
©American Society of Clinical Oncology Update Recommendation Questions For men with metastatic or recurrent androgen-sensitive prostate cancer, in whom ADT is considered the most appropriate initial intervention: 1.What are the standard initial treatment options? 2.Are anti-androgens as effective as other castration therapies? 3.Is combined androgen blockade better than castration alone? 4.Does early androgen deprivation therapy improve outcomes over deferred therapy? 5.Is intermittent androgen deprivation therapy better than continuous androgen deprivation therapy?
©American Society of Clinical Oncology 2007 What are the standard initial treatment options? Recommended Bilateral orchiectomy (surgical castration) Medical castration w/LHRH agonists Toxicities of castration include hypotestosteronemia, weight gain, mood lability, gynecomastia, fatigue, lassitude, cognitive changes, loss of libido ✗ Not Recommended DES No longer commercially available in North America; associated with cardiovascular toxicities including myocardial infarction, stroke, and pulmonary embolism Note: Long-term castrate levels of testosterone can induce osteopenia and hypercholesterolemia
©American Society of Clinical Oncology 2007 Standard initial treatment options (cont’d) Initial Tx OptionBenefitsHarms Bilateral Orchiectomy Rapid palliation Patient compliance Relative low costs Traumatic Nonreversible Toxicities Minor risk of surgical complications Medical Castration w/LHRH agonist* Less emotionally taxing Potentially reversible Some toxicity-related symptoms resolve after cessation of therapy More expensive than orchiectomy Toxicities Patients may experience flare phenomenon (initial worsening of signs/symptoms) Oncologists should discuss treatment options with their patients * Contraindicated as monotherapy in men with impending spinal cord compression, urinary obstruction, or pain due to the potential for exacerbating symptoms.
©American Society of Clinical Oncology 2007 Are anti-androgens as effective as other castration? therapies? Anti-AndrogenRecommendation Vs. Medical/Surgical Castration Nonsteroidal (NSAA) [Agents: bicalutamide, flutamide, nilutamide] NSAA monotherapy may be discussed as an alternative Equivalent overall survival compared to orchiectomy with less toxicity regarding loss of libido and physical capacity Steroidal [Agents: cyproterone acetate, goserelin acetate] Steroidal anti-androgen monotherapy should not be offered Inferior time to progression of disease compared to LHRH agonists Both forms of anti-androgens have been associated with hepatotoxicity Additional NSAA toxicities include gynecomastia and breast pain Cyproterone acetate is only available in Canada and Europe
©American Society of Clinical Oncology 2007 Is combined androgen blockade better than castration alone? Combined androgen blockade (CAB) should be considered Survival is greater with the addition of a non-steroidal anti- androgen to medical or surgical castration (increased side effects may occur) Though survival benefits are not yet available bicalutamide CAB should be considered Commonly-used Once-a-day dosing Lowered gastrointestinal and ophthalmologic side effects than other NSAAs ✗ More expensive than other NSAAs though cheaper than newer systemic therapies ✗ May not be covered by health plans
©American Society of Clinical Oncology 2007 Does early ADT improve outcomes over deferred therapy? For patients with metastatic or progressive PCa: –17% decrease in relative risk (RR) for PCa-specific mortality –15% increase in RR for non-PCa-specific mortality –No overall survival advantage for immediate institution of ADT versus waiting until symptom onset for patients For patients with recurrent disease, clinical trials should be considered (if available) The Panel cannot make a strong recommendation for the early use of ADT Patients that decide to wait until symptoms develop before beginning ADT should have regular visits for monitoring
©American Society of Clinical Oncology 2007 Is intermittent ADT better than continuous ADT? Data are insufficient to support the use of intermittent androgen blockade outside of clinical trials Ongoing Clinical Trials* Clinical ProspectiveTrial NameStatus Timing of androgen deprivation therapy after radical radiation Timing of Androgen Deprivation (TOAD) Opened in 2004 Early vs. Late Androgen Ablation Trial (ELAAT) Opened in 2006 Intermittent versus continuous androgen therapy Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG 9346) Open and accruing patients National Cancer Institute Canada (PR7) Reached accrual goals; first analysis in 2013 * All studies include quality of life as an outcome measure
©American Society of Clinical Oncology 2007 Summary Treatment Option Recommended ✗ Not Recommended Initial Treatment Options Bilateral orchiectomy or Medical castration with LHRH agonists DES Anti-Androgens NSAA monotherapy may be discussed Steroidal anti-androgens as monotherapy Combined Androgen Blockade CAB should be considered Early Use of ADT Panel cannot make a strong recommendation Intermittent Androgen Blockade Data insufficient to support its use
©American Society of Clinical Oncology 2007 Additional ASCO Resources The full-text guideline as well as the following tools and resources are available at: –Summary Slide Set –Guideline Summary –ASCO Patient GuideASCO Patient Guide –Revisions TableRevisions Table –Treatment AlgorithmTreatment Algorithm
©American Society of Clinical Oncology 2007 ASCO Guidelines
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