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1 Technological Advisory Council Supporting the Transition to IP Deep Dive and Stake Holders Interviews and Observations Extended Presentation 4 December.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Technological Advisory Council Supporting the Transition to IP Deep Dive and Stake Holders Interviews and Observations Extended Presentation 4 December."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Technological Advisory Council Supporting the Transition to IP Deep Dive and Stake Holders Interviews and Observations Extended Presentation 4 December 2014

2 Extended Presentation References for IP Transition  Deep Dive: Access by People with Disabilities Current Capabilities  Assisted Devices Transition Options  Devices Transition Recommendations  Are PSTN Islands avoidable on the IP Backbone Edge?  What is the rationale for this approach?  Why will this approach work?  Actionable Items for Access by People with Disabilities  IP Transition Considerations for Non-Service Providers  High-Gain Amplified Telephone  TTY Performance – C. Vogler, Galludet  TTY Performance – Vanderheiden  Elevator / Public Safety Devices  Deployment Specific Service Requirements  Technical Solutions Exist  Expanded Interview Responses from Rural Broadband Providers  Expanded Review of Interview Reponses from Manufacturers 2

3 Deep Dive: Access by People with Disabilities Current Capabilities  Real-time text (the TTY) on any phone  Text that can be intermixed with speech  Real-time text in both directions  Speech in one direction, real-time text in the other  Speech with real-time text in one direction (and speech, text, or speech + text back)  A simple device that is always connected, single function, and very simple to use  A phone system that allows one to simply connect ring indicators to the phone line throughout the house to have an indication that the phones are being rung. 3

4 Access by People with Disabilities: Assisted Devices Transition Options  Devices/ Services Include:  TTY  Relay service  Video relay service  Amplified phones  Amplified ringing phones  Flashing light ring signalers  Voice carry-over phones  Captioned telephones  Hands-free speakerphones  Alternatives  Adapt existing devices or replace with IP capable device  Adaptation Considerations  Replacement Costs  Consumer Awareness  Standard compliance and performance consistency  IETF RFC 4103, TIA 41.3  Last mile performance  CPE dependencies 4

5 Are PSTN Islands avoidable on the IP Backbone Edge?  Small PSTN islands can be managed on the edges of an IP Backbone by either  having all gateways able to transcode OR  having a special gateway on each PSTN network fragment that is able to transcode AND pass the call to a destination provider over IP:  Can get info to the users still on the PSTN about using a pre-dial number when their TTY doesn’t work; OR (for outgoing calls only) distribute reprogrammed TTYs that autodial a pre-number  In either case, the pre-dial goes to a PSTN-IP(SIP) gateway then it is passed on to the destination provider over IP 5

6 What is the rationale for this approach?  The key to affordable, workable equivalent communication access is to ride the voice-phone-call path  People who are deaf / Hard-of-hearing / Speech impaired, will not have interoperability or the ability to call anyone they want unless we provide them with accessible communication channels by enhancing the universal voice communication path and technologies we have with mainstream phone calls.  Equivalently-universal communication for people with disabilities can only be achieved by enhancing the “telephone calls” so that calls can be made using voice, real-time text, or video and any combination of these.  This requires ensuring support for each in both the networks and the terminal devices. 6

7 Why will this approach work?  Acceptance for interoperable real-time text in IP is growing.  IETF RFC 4103 is referred to as the standard in a number of areas (NG911 Networks, Relay Service systems and terminals, GMSA wireless phones for LTE, and internationally in relay and accessible communications services in Europe).  There is a well-established standard for Real-time text on SIP and IMS that is a natural sibling to voice and video in the backbone.  Other networks can use RTT+VOICE+VIDEO technologies  Everything on these network will need to support the RTT + Voice + Video standard(s) chosen and the formats will need to be transcoded to the standards of the other networks they interface with. 7

8 Actionable Items for Access by People with Disabilities  Promote the development of a single device capable of IP Voice/RTT/ Video  Consider buyback program for TDM Assistive Devices  Funding, Training, Consumer Awareness  Encourage Industry Consensus around IETF RFC 4103 for real-time text over IP  Acceptance for IETF RFC 4103 for interoperable real-time text in IP is growing in a number of areas (NG911 Network, Relay services, GMSSA wireless phones for LTE and internationally in accessible communications services in Europe).  There is a well-established standard for Real-time text on SIP and IMS that is a natural sibling to voice and video in the backbone.  Drive industry compliance with TIA Spec 41.3 defining ATA/ device performance  Device Certification Proposal  Affects Assistive Devices and other legacy devices  Move off of PSTN as fast as possible to avoid PSTN islands 8

9 High-Gain Amplified Telephones  ATA Ringing  Voltages and ringing signal type that may cause some telephones to not ring as expected for an incoming call.  Failure to ring when multiple telephones are connected to the same ATA port.  Failure to ring due to DC voltage loss  DTMF receivers on ATAs  Outgoing call failures due to short DTMF signals  IVR failures due to inconsistent DTMF signaling  False DTMF signal detection during speech causing audible tones  ATA loss plan (control of speech levels in/out of ATA)  Distortion (high line levels)  Unacceptable volume variations  ATA electrical impedance  sidetones (noise/ Static)  Stability (howling/ squealing)  ATA electrical interface  Connection to ATA Failure due to Low power  May not support some line-powered speakerphones. 9

10 TTY Performance – C. Vogler, Galludet  There are inherent problems with making TTYs work for VoIP.  Rough Guideline: TTY character transmission accuracy requires 99% success.  It can be made to work for core networks with strict QoS guarantees  “last-mile” variations make performance difficult, especially for wireless base stations on the premises.  Galludet Recommendation:  Upgrade to an IP-based TTY replacement based on audio (G.711, G.722) and real-time text codecs (RFC4103) where feasible, and use transcoding Baudot to RFC4103 gateways where it is not.  Key Documents  For the high-level overview, see the FCC Brief on Disability Issues for PSTN Transition.  For in-depth treatment, see the EAAC report - especially Chapter 6. 10

11 TTY Performance - Vanderheiden  Ensure that a standard RTT is supported across all of the internets and supported by all terminal devices with Screen & text generation  Commission the creation of a Ref Design for simple - single function - IP Voice, RTT and Video communication device  Move off of PSTN (where only TTYs work) as fast as possible  While Transitioning (where there are small PSTN islands) either  have gateways that can transcode (we have prototypes of those) - get info to the (just the users on the PSTN) about using a predial number (to get to a gateway) when their TTY doesn’t work. Or  distribute reprogrammed TTYs that autodial a pre-number (but this only works for outgoing) 11

12 Elevator / Public Safety Devices  Typically Automatic Ringdown circuits  Can almost always accommodate an TDM to IP conversion and maintain existing device  Typically use analog port off the IP System.  Analog Telephone Adapters (ATA’s) work for those getting a VoIP phone system and for those going directly to voice cloud services.  The lack of a “Standard” communication protocol by IP service providers has made it challenging to achieve reliable consistent results converting analog phones but in most cases, experimenting with settings can resolve  TDM emergency phones won’t have to be replaced in most cases, yet an ATA or modifications to existing phones will be required.  Unlike the digital TV conversion from Analog to digital TV where consumers provided free install labor, the Elevator Industry rate is $300/hr labor so the labor cost will dwarf the cost of a new phone. 12

13 Deployment Specific Service Requirements  Technical solutions to migrate or replace exist but  Access network performance and device spec compliance vary widely, extensive troubleshooting required  Funding for replacing obsoleted devices is an issue  Requirements gap examples  Alarm industry requires battery monitoring, which may not be supported by services provider  Elevator phones typically require analog line off IP system. If ATA required, deployment cost dwarf hardware cost. Building owners may not be aware of issues.  Spec exists for ATA’s (TIA TR41.3) but no certification exists. 13

14 Technical Solutions Exist Policy Lags: Who Pays? Tighter Specs? Detailed Deployment Guidelines? ExampleExceptionIssue Alarm IndustryBattery Back-up monitoring is required for alarms Service Providers May or may not provide Telemetry for Battery monitoring available, but largely shifted to Subscriber Performance of ATA’s (inconsistent POTS emulation) Technical ability to monitor Battery life exists No requirement today for ISP to deploy battery or monitor deployment or status Common interfaces and standards missing Resolution requires skilled technical support to solve individual problems Elevator PhonesEmergency Phones required in most elevators – ATA performance inconsistent Building owner faced with upgrading terminal or buying interface CPE. 14

15 Technical Solutions Exist Policy Lags: Who Pays? Tighter Specs? Detailed Deployment Guidelines? ExampleExceptionIssue AT&T IP Transition Trial No support planned for outdated/declining services: Some operator services, Dial around calls, 3 rd Party Pay/Call, DVR services, Elevator phones Price of replacement services, Fees to transfer, and who pays for required CPE FAA National Airspace System 21,000 TDM serving locationsBudget and Manpower create completion estimate Assistive Devices Poor performance of devices on some VoIP services Officials distributing assistive devices are usually non-tech Field Awareness of device compatibility lacking Compatible devices available, But who pays? Trouble Resolution requires multiple providers and vendors Very tight design tolerances Equipment Availability 15

16 Extended Interview Responses from Stakeholders  Rural Broadband Providers  Common Themes for Satellite Provider Interview Responses  Satellite Broadband Provider Interview  Common Theme for Rural Service Provider Interview Responses  High Construction Cost Areas - $87 to $100K per mile Interview  Middle Construction Cost Areas - $65K per mile Interview  Lowest Construction Cost Areas - $15K per mile Interview  Midsize Rural Carrier Interview  Middle-Mile Provider Interview  Rural Broadband Manufacturers  Common Themes for Broadband Equipment Manufacturers  Working Group Learnings from Manufacturers  Fiber Cable Manufacturer Interviews 16

17  More Satellites are being launched to improve performance in all areas  Expect up to 50 Mbps in the future with newer satellites  Mountainous areas have line of site issues  Satellite has more subscribers closer to the cities that in the very rural areas.  Majority of Capitalization not spent until customer signs up  Dynamic Beam adjustment in future to reach areas of high demand 17 Common Themes for Satellite Provider Interview Responses:

18 Satellite Broadband Provider Interview  Speeds Provided: Currently average 12 Mbps down and 3 Mbps up  Newer Satellite being launch will offer 50 Mbps.  Capacity: Satellite can meet capacity needs by adding additional birds, plenty of orbital space, but takes three years to plan. New satellites are being built.  Line of Site Issues: Two percent of installations are abandoned due to customer not wanting trees trimmed. One percent cannot be served due to terrain. 18

19 Satellite Broadband Provider Interview Continued  Comparisons to Landline:  Gaming: Latency is most noticeable for twitch games.  VPN: Works, however when using a tunnel to go to an outside website web accelerator will not work causing delays.  Voice: Latency is about a half a second and is noticeable and feels like a cell to cell call  Static IP Address: Available with business services  Demographics of Customer area today: Most customer live just outside the beltway in areas where broadband is not available or very slow speeds. Customers want speeds of FTTH. 40 percent have wireless only for voice.  Cost: Lower upfront cost to start providing service with the majority of the cost coming with installation of home unit. 19

20 Common Theme for Rural Service Provider Interview Responses:  Employees live in areas they serve: react quickly to customer needs and responses  Middle-mile solutions represent a greater bottle neck to providing broadband access services than last mile solutions  Installed larger fiber networks or joined a consortium to form statewide networks  Built redundant connection points over several years, for reliability  Due to long distances to internet gateways, companies worked to bring traffic closer to end point of their own network to reduce costs and therefore price. Regional solutions provide hosting and transit to mitigate high middle-mile transition costs. 20

21 21 Common Theme for Rural Service Provider Interview Responses:  Companies have varying stages of VoIP in network  Access to a softswitch seems to be a key turning point for fully deploying VoIP. For them, the transition point has not yet arrived:  Companies without softswitches are reviewing options for purchase or leasing services from hosted parties.  Companies with softswitches are hosting services for others.  Interestingly, two companies host third party softswitches. Yet, they have not transitioned their own legacy circuit switched voice customers.

22  Aggressively adopted new and hybrid solutions which solved geographical challenges and fit investment profiles.  Deployment of FTTH in new build situations  Extended copper life by reaching customers with VDSL  Creative deployment of wireless solutions (LTE or WiMAX)  All companies consider themselves as broadband companies  Rural regulated companies been on a roller coaster last 5 years.  Cost per mile for buried construction ranged from low $15K, median $65K to $110 per mile which greatly impact the ROI.  ADSL average 9 Kft loop VDSL less than 5 Kft. 22 Common Theme for Rural Service Provider Interview Responses:

23 High Construction Cost Areas - $87 to $100K per mile Interview  Speeds Offered: Most customers 10 Mbps, Fixed Wireless 4 to 6 Mbps Average take rate for broadband is 67 percent  Services Offered: Voice, Broadband, Wireless and CATV  Biggest Challenges: Distance and Density  How to increase usage: Seniors teaching Seniors, High school seniors go out to the senior center to teach them how to use , transfer pictures files and to use a cell phone. 23

24 High Construction Cost Areas - $87 to $100K per mile Interview Continued  Plan to leave copper network: 5 years  Carrier interconnection with larger companies still TDM.  IP from softswitch to field access equipment: FTTH IP to ONT, VDSL and ADSL IP to DSLAM.  Construction: All buried required by agencies  Some states require multi-duct placement along R/W to resell at future date 24

25 Middle Construction Cost Areas- $65K per mile Interview  Speeds offered: In town 50 Mbps, ADSL speeds in rural areas with fixed 4G LTE to very rural locations  Services offered: Landline, wireless and CATV  Internet backbone: over Gigabit Ethernet rings  Plan to leave copper: five to seven years. One percent can’t reach with 4G due to terrain will leave on copper for voice  Other Issues: Programing cost is a concern. Hard to compete with high rates because of being a little guy.  IP Transition:  Have softswitch with 30 to 40 percent of customer on IP to the home terminal. To be 95% IP by end of Long distance served over IP with some TDM  Construction: Aerial in town buried in rural 25

26 Lowest Construction Cost Areas- $15K per mile Interview  Speeds offered: Up to 90 Mbps using FTTH and 15 Mbps for VDSL  Services Offered: Voice, Broadband, IPTV and Fixed Wireless outside regulated area  Broadband Take Rate: 80 percent with 100 percent available  Middle-Mile: Had issues with high tariff DS3 back haul. Work with other small companies and formed a group to build a fiber network to reduce cost for IP backhaul. Now has large capacity ring service and fraction of costs.  IP Transition in network:  IP in field access equipment: FTTH IP to ONT  Have Softswitch available and leases services to other, but uses 16 year old TDM switch for voice  Carrier interconnection still TDM.  Construction: All buried down gravel roads 26

27 Lowest Construction Cost Areas- $15K per mile Interview Continued  Use existing facilities as long as possible to support fastest broadband services; move to newer technology as ROI allows.  Plan new subdivision builds with other utilities to share costs  Place conduit with water and gas  All employees spot and act on opportunities to share construction costs with utilities and roads 27

28 Midsize Rural Carrier Interview  Speeds offered: FTTH, VDSL, ADSL and DOCSIS  Services Offered: Voice, Broadband and IP Video and CATV  Geographic Area: Same as the smaller rural service providers  Service Area: Provide Broadband to 95 percent of service area using FTTH, VDSL and ADSL. Last 5 percent served with satellite resale FTTH makes up 11 percent of the network growing at a rate of 4 percent per year.  System Design: Centralized to direct and control progress to an all IP network. Placing FTTH when possible. Company  Plan to leave copper network: 20 years 28

29 Midsize Rural Carrier Interview Continued  IP Transition: Deployed an IP switching overlay network throughout area. 27 percent is migrated to al IP switching. IP is used as far down the access network as possible but uses traditional dial tone in the home. High demand for IP services for business. Nearly 100 percent of long distance is over IP network.  Construction: Differs by area. Aerial is cheaper however maintenance tradeoff must be review by region to decide on method. Permitting cost have gone up substantially. Look for sewer lines to make RR crossing. Larger Companies get permits and fees reduced by cities when negotiating to Buildout with in the town. No luck but smaller companies. 29

30 Middle-Mile Provider Interviews  Built to bring broadband to the rural communities and directly serve Hospitals, schools, libraries and public safety in profitable areas where demand currently exists.  MMP not subject to regulation and provides bandwidth to the end service provider (CLEC and small ISP) to connect to rural consumers. MMP not required to serve designated area  Construction mostly buried to reduce ongoing expenses (pole rental)  Not in a position to offer backhaul services to wireless towers 30

31 Common Themes for Broadbroad Eqpt Manufacturers  Interviewed manufacturers of broadband and transport equipment, providing platforms serving large, medium and small providers in rural areas which handle PSTN voice, VoIP and Broadband services  High degree of aggressiveness by the small provider makes for a suitable test bed for the manufacturers’ products. Manufacturers attribute this to:  Small providers having local ties to the community  Small providers have small technical staff allowing for easy communication and quick responses to needed network changes  Small providers access to USF  Small providers can build with longer payouts when working with local economic development groups  Larger Providers Implementation advantage:  Bulk Volume Purchase  Late adopter of products removes initial kinks, cuts cost for Lab Testing, Equipment and the provider receives historical benefits of customer usage of product 31

32 Working Group Learnings From Manufacturers ATM Conversion to Ethernet  Manufactures agree that large amounts of ATM product is still in service in the larger provider’s territories. Some manufactures currently produce 12 percent line product for ATM use in the broadband market place. This has dropped from 37 percent 5 years ago.  Small providers have already moved from BPON to GPON or Active Ethernet to handle higher speed requirements needed by the user  Some manufacturers can change out ONTs and convert to Ethernet over a period of time while others require a forklift for electronics on both end 32

33 Working Group Learnings From Manufacturers Continued Powering of FTTH Network Over Copper Has Not Taken Off  Many companies are moving to residential powering of FTTH network with mini ONTs located in the home. (Back up powering is offered as an optional service for completive reasons)  Powering systems are available on individual cases basis for life threating situations requiring continuous contact Construction Techniques  Large Carriers use pre-marketing prior to build-out of large FTTH areas to develop a construction sequence. As construction begins, a second marketing team offers service to others in the area. No new hook-ups are offered in an area until later waves of marketing are complete to reduce the use of expensive truck rolls for individual drop placement 33

34 Fiber Cable Manufacturer Interviews  Fiber Manufacturers are constantly looking for ways to lower cost of fiber Construction cost of fiber and passive hardware is 15 percent of project costs.  Developing Plug and Play fiber in sizes of 12, 24 and 48 using pre- connectorized sections to reduce splicing in the rural towns  In denser areas use of a flat mini cable for micro trenching or place in in existing used conduits. 144 to 288 with ¼ inch diameter. Smaller cable reduces red tape in city permitting and planning.  Multi Dwelling Unit high cost to serve: In door cabling (peel away jacket for installation in tight areas.)  Fiber in the Hallways: Use fiber down the hall with RF MDU in individual apartments. 34


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