Clean Cities / 3 Basics: What Is Ethanol? Blended at low levels into more than 95% of gasoline sold in the United States Increasingly available as E85 for use in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) Image: NREL Image Gallery #21776 C 2 H 5 OH Plant Materials (Biomass)
Clean Cities / 4 Basics: Benefits and Considerations Image: NREL Image Gallery #18090 Benefits Domestically produced Net positive energy production Increased vehicle power and performance Job creation in rural areas Lower life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria pollutant emissions Affordable vehicle options widely available Considerations Lower fuel economy Blends above E10 require modification of some infrastructure materials
Clean Cities / 5 Basics: Blends CategoryBlendApplications E10 Low-level blend 10% Ethanol 90% Gasoline Most common blend in the United States Can be used in any gasoline vehicle E15 Low-level blend 10.5%-15% Ethanol 85%-89.5% Gasoline U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved for Model Year (MY) 2001 and newer vehicles Mid-level or blender- pump blends Variable (E20, E30 most common) Used in FFVs E85 51%-83% Ethanol Qualifies as an alternative fuel under Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) Used in FFVs
Clean Cities / 6 Basics: Production Ethanol from Starch and Sugar Corn ethanol most common in United States Ethanol from sugar beets and sugarcane most common in Brazil Ethanol Dry Milling Wet Milling Image: NREL Image Gallery #10578 Corn
Clean Cities / 7 Basics: Production Image: NREL Image Gallery #16159 Cellulosic Ethanol Uses woody, structural parts of plants, crop residues, small trees, grasses Research under way to improve cost and efficiency Ethanol Biochemical Process Thermochemical Process Cellulosic Material
Clean Cities / 8 Basics: Production Capability Source: Renewable Fuels Association. Ethanol Industry StatisticsRenewable Fuels Association. Ethanol Industry Statistics Source: EIA Monthly Energy Review, Table 10.3 and 10.4 and the EPA Renewable Fuels Standard EMTS Informational DataEIA Monthly Energy ReviewEPA
Clean Cities / 9 Basics: Distribution Source: Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC)
Clean Cities / 10 Vehicles: Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFVs) FFVs Qualify as alternative fuel vehicles under EPAct Operate on gasoline, E85, and lower-level blends Comparable acceleration, payload, and speed to gasoline vehicles Images: NREL Image Gallery #1809 and #17156
Clean Cities / 11 Vehicles: How Do They Work? FFV Image: AFDC
Clean Cities / 12 Vehicles: Where to Find Available Models
Clean Cities / 13 Case Study #1: City of Hoover Fleet Just the Numbers FFVs in 2003: 9 FFVs in 2013: 212 Gallons of E85 used: More than 1.5 million “In 2006, our use of alternative fuels earned a visit from the president of the United States. Over the years, more than 100 representatives of local governments, fleets, and other organizations have come to Hoover to see how a progressive Southern city successfully uses alternative fuels.” —Mayor Gary Ivey, City of Hoover, Alabama Significantly increased FFVs Installed a 12,500-gallon E85 tank in 2004 Improved local air quality, decreased GHG emissions, and increased energy security Image and More Information: AFDC Case Study Search, City of Hoover Fleet Boasts 200-Plus Flex Fuel Vehicles, http://www.afdc.energy.gov/case/1423http://www.afdc.energy.gov/case/1423
Clean Cities / 14 Infrastructure: E85 Station Availability The number of E85 stations continues to grow over time. Source: AFDC Station Locator, July 2014 (includes public and private stations)
Clean Cities / 15 Infrastructure: Types Ask about fleet discounts Communicate potential E85 demand Existing E85 Stations Use newer equipment that is clean and in good condition Use a contractor that knows state and local rules Converting Existing Equipment to E85 Research local regulations Hire a professional with E85 experience Contact the state energy office, industry associations, and Clean Cities Installing New E85 Equipment Image: NREL Image Gallery #17138
Clean Cities / 16 Infrastructure: Requirements Dispensers Hanging Hardware Storage Tanks Blender Pump Images: NREL Image Gallery #13531, #12493, #04088, #17139 Helpful Resource: Clean Cities’ Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends provides comprehensive guidance for maintaining E85 infrastructure. Helpful Resource: Clean Cities’ Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends provides comprehensive guidance for maintaining E85 infrastructure.
Clean Cities / 17 Case Study #2: Pennsylvania’s Ethanol Corridor Project Just the Numbers Fuel dispensed in the first four years: 1 million gallons Infrastructure: 19 publicly available stations “What a fantastic day for Pennsylvania. A few years ago, this fuel was only known in the Midwest. In the interest of our national security we need every available domestically produced fuel to help lessen our dependence on foreign petroleum. —Seth Obetz, AMERIgreen In 2006, set a goal to create an E85 corridor between State College and Philadelphia Engaged both large multi-station retail fuel companies, such as AMERIgreen, Shipley Energy, and Sheetz, and small businesses like Dileo’s Auto Service Image and More Information: AFDC Case Study Search, Pennsylvania’s Ethanol Corridor Project Surpasses 1 Million Gallons, www.afdc.energy.gov/case/1068www.afdc.energy.gov/case/1068 #00089, #03755
Clean Cities / 18 Case Study #3: City of Chicago Just the Numbers FFVs in fleet: More than 1,860 E85 Stations: 11 Petroleum Displacement: 1.2 million gallons of gasoline per year “It’s easy to get the vehicles. The tough part is the infrastructure. After that, the key is to keep an eye on the price and make sure it continues to be economically practical.” —Samantha Bingham, Chicago Dept. of Transportation Increased the number of E85 fueling stations from 6 to 11 Received funding through American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and city-provided matching funds Implemented a “lockout” policy for fueling FFVs Image and More Information: AFDC Case Study Search, City of Chicago Program Encourages Petroleum Displacement, http://www.afdc.energy.gov/case/1844http://www.afdc.energy.gov/case/1844
Clean Cities / 19 Other Considerations: Return on Investment Tools afdc.energy.gov/tools
Clean Cities / 20 ? Based on my fleet inventory and replacement schedule, what is the vehicle replacement potential? What vehicle, equipment, and station development vendors exist? Are there fueling stations in my area? Are they public or private? Can I visit? What support can my local Clean Cities coalition provide? How many vehicles will be fueled each day? How much fuel will each vehicle need? When and how often will vehicles need to be fueled? What federal, state, and local incentives are available? Getting Started: Questions to Ask Image: NREL Image Gallery #19957 Helpful Resource: The AFDC Laws and Incentives Search provides information about available state and federal incentives for FFVs and infrastructure. Helpful Resource: The AFDC Laws and Incentives Search provides information about available state and federal incentives for FFVs and infrastructure.
Clean Cities / 21 Presenter Organization Website Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) afdc.energy.gov Renewable Fuels Association (RFA) ethanolrfa.org More Information
Clean Cities / 22 Clean Cities Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol- Gasoline Blends (http://www.afdc.energy.gov/uploads/publication/ethanol_handbook.pdf)http://www.afdc.energy.gov/uploads/publication/ethanol_handbook.pdf AFDC Alternative Fueling Station Locator (http://www.afdc.energy.gov/locator/stations/)http://www.afdc.energy.gov/locator/stations/ AFDC Federal and State Laws and Incentives search (http://www.afdc.energy.gov/laws)http://www.afdc.energy.gov/laws AFDC Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Search (http://www.afdc.energy.gov/vehicles/search)http://www.afdc.energy.gov/vehicles/search AFDC Vehicle Cost Calculator (http://www.afdc.energy.gov/calc/)http://www.afdc.energy.gov/calc/ AFDC Petroleum Reduction Planning Tool (http://www.afdc.energy.gov/prep/)http://www.afdc.energy.gov/prep/ FuelEconomy.gov Hybrids, Diesels, and Alternative Fuel Vehicles (http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/alternatives.shtml)http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/alternatives.shtml Argonne National Laboratory’s (ANL’s) AFLEET Tool (https://greet.es.anl.gov/afleet)https://greet.es.anl.gov/afleet EPA Alternative Fuel Conversion (http://www.epa.gov/otaq/consumer/fuels/altfuels/altfuels.htm)http://www.epa.gov/otaq/consumer/fuels/altfuels/altfuels.htm Congressional Budget Office (CBO) The Impact of Ethanol Use on Food Prices and Greenhouse-Gas Emissions (http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/100xx/doc10057/04-08- Ethanol.pdf )http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/100xx/doc10057/04-08- Ethanol.pdf National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Water Usage for Current and Future Ethanol Production (http://www.swhydro.arizona.edu/archive/V6_N5/feature4.pdf)http://www.swhydro.arizona.edu/archive/V6_N5/feature4.pdf References and Resources
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