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Fairness Jasmin Mejia, Jackson Pillow, and John Twork.

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1 Fairness Jasmin Mejia, Jackson Pillow, and John Twork

2  Michael Bugeja “Living Ethics”  Fairness is a continual process of improvement involving the evaluation of work and behavior to determine (a) whether the work is accurate or truthful, (b) whether the behavior is honest or appropriate, and (c) whether methods or values can be enhanced to meet those goals. Defined

3  Merriam-Webster  Fairness is marked by impartiality and honesty : free from self-interest, prejudice, or favoritism Defined

4  Wikipedia  Fairness is a legal principle allowing for the use of discretion, an equality and solidarity in a society, an equal allocation of goods in a society, and/or an absence of bias in specific realms. Defined

5  Dictionary.com  Fairness is the state, condition, or quality of being fair, or free from bias or injustice; evenhandedness; free from discrimination, dishonesty, etc; just; impartial Defined

6 Fairness? Themes

7  Incorporating reoccurring themes  Process, Instance, or can it be both?  How is fairness determined/constructed? How We Define It

8  Introduced by the FCC in  Required that all broadcasters (1) devote a reasonable amount of their programming to controversial issues of public importance and (2) provide contrasting viewpoints on those issues.  Theory behind the doctrine was that the radio spectrum did not have space for every view.  Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. FCC (1969). History: The Fairness Doctrine

9  No rigid regulation. Equal time was not required (NOT the Equal Opportunities Rule).  Caused considerable problems: Audience complaints and litigation were common, particularly involving part 2 of the doctrine.  Broadcasters were forced to reduce controversial programming, rather than face an abundance of contrasting complaints. History: The Fairness Doctrine

10  In 1987, the FCC formally abandoned the doctrine in its Syracuse Peace Council decision.  “The intrusion by government into the content of programming occasioned by the enforcement of [the Fairness Doctrine] restricts the journalistic freedom of broadcasters... [and] actually inhibits the presentation of controversial issues of public importance to the detriment of the public and the degradation of the editorial prerogative of broadcast journalists.” History: The Fairness Doctrine

11  During , some Democrats in Congress said publicly that the doctrine should be reinstated. This was prompted by the abundance of conservative talk radio stations (90% conservative, 10% liberal, according to americanprogress.org).  On August 22, 2011, President Obama’s FCC formally voted to repeal the doctrine, along with 80 other rules from the Federal Register, following a White House executive order. The Fairness Doctrine Now

12  The Fairness Doctrine attempted to regulate an ethical aspect of broadcasting: fairness.  Is it possible to regulate ethical behavior?  Does converged media enhance or hinder the chances of achieving fairness in the media? Ideas Behind The Fairness Doctrine

13  Can be currently defined as a process in which fewer individuals or organizations control increasing shares of mass media.  Many media industries are already highly concentrated and dominated by a very small number of firms.  Television/Cable service  Internet service  Telephone/Cellular service Media Ownership

14 Mourning or Moving on?

15  Control?  Moved beyond standard forms of regulation  Message senders  Journalists, bloggers, fans, foes, the occasional crayon eater, etc.  Message receivers  Global audience; anyone with access can be targeted Converged Media and Fairness

16  What are the future implications for converged media in regards to editorial independence, media bias, and freedom of the press?  Presidential campaigns and debates  Special Interest Groups  Some suggest a “newer” more adaptable focus  Equal access and opportunity for all Fairness and the Future

17  Net Neutrality  In its simplest terms, this principle states that all internet traffic should be treated equally.  No restrictions by Internet service providers or governments on consumers' access to networks that participate in the internet.  Specifically, network neutrality would prevent restrictions on content, sites, platforms, types of equipment that may be attached, and modes of communication. Net Neutrality as the “New” Focus

18  How do we regulate fairness ethics and converged media?  Is a newer, adapted doctrine the solution?  Are there options that can provide a long-term solution?  Is there a such thing as a long-term solution?  Which theories can be used to support fairness ethics within converged media? Dilemma

19  Utilitarianism  Actions should be done for the greater good of the many over the needs for the few.  Major contributors were Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. Theory

20  Agenda Setting  The process of the media placing value on particular issues influencing the public’s perception of the importance of those issues.  Second level agenda setting focuses on the media actually being able to influence public opinion on certain issues.  McCombs and Shaw starting agenda research in the early 1970s. Theory

21  Framing  The process in which the media emphasize specific parts of a story and disregard other parts.  Ghanem and Takeshita were major contributors to notion of framing. Theory

22 Questions?


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