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Chapter 8 Memory.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Memory."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 Memory

2 Memory and Its Processes
Memory - an active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters it as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage. Processes of Memory: Encoding - the set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brain’s storage systems. Storage - holding onto information for some period of time. Retrieval - getting information that is in storage into a form that can be used.

3 Models of Memory Information-processing model - model of memory that assumes the processing of information for memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory in a series of three stages. Levels-of-processing model - model of memory that assumes information that is more “deeply processed,” or processed according to its meaning rather than just the sound or physical characteristics of the word or words, will be remembered more efficiently and for a longer period of time. Parallel distributed processing (PDP) model - a model of memory in which memory processes are proposed to take place at the same time over a large network of neural connections.

4 Atkinson-Shiffrin 3 Step Model
Sensory memory – brief recording of sensory information Short-term memory – memory that holds few items briefly before info is forgotten Working Memory- conscious, active processing of auditory and visual-spatial information and long term memory Long –term memory – relatively permanent and limitless storage of memory.

5 Atkinson and Shiffrin LO 6.1 Memory and the three processes of memory
AP Describe & differentiate systems of memory Atkinson and Shiffrin

6 Encoding- Automatic Processing
Automatic Processing - tendency of certain kinds of information to enter long-term memory with little or no effortful encoding. Space- a certain place where an item is located Time- sequence of the days events Frequency- how many times something occurs Well-learned information- words Parallel Processing- processing of many things simultaneously

7 Encoding- Effortful Processing
Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort Rehearsal- conscious Repetition Herman Ebbinghaus- More times he practiced a list of nonsense syllables the fewer repetitions it took the next day As rehearsal increases, relearning time decreases Overlearning- additional rehearsal after we learn increases retention citamotua emoceb nac gnissecorp luftroffE

8 Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting Curve

9 Effortful Processing Spacing Effect- we retain information when our rehearsal is distributed over time rather than cramming Testing Effect- retention checks Serial Position Effect- tend to remember the first and last items on a list Primacy effect - tendency to remember information at the beginning of a body of information better than the information that follows. Recency effect - tendency to remember information at the end of a body of information better than the information ahead of it.

10 Menu

11 How We Encode Visual Encoding: the encoding of picture images.
Acoustic Encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words. Semantic Encoding: the encoding of meaning. Page 334

12 Visual Encoding Imagery – visual images help us remember concrete words (aided by semantic encoding Rosy Retrospection – recalling high points, forgetting the worst Mnemonic Devices – memory aids that use visual images and organizational devices Peg word system – memorizing a jingle Example: Name Game

13 Organizing Information for Encoding
Chunking - Organizing items into familiar, manageable units. Acronym’s HOMES ROY G. BIV GE ADS GN???? Hierarchies – broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and facts (Semantic Network Model) Schemas- information tied to previous learned information

14 Menu

15 Storage Types of Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-Term Memory

16 Sensory Memory George Sperling- Momentary Photographic Memory
Presented rows of letters (people couldn’t recall all) then sounded a tone after the letters f0r which row to recall (people could recall the row) Sensory (fleeting) memory - the very first stage of memory, the point at which information enters the nervous system through the sensory systems. Iconic memory - visual sensory memory, lasting only a fraction of a second. Capacity – everything that can be seen at one time. Duration - information that has just entered iconic memory will be pushed out very quickly by new information, a process called masking. Eidetic imagery - the rare ability to access a visual memory for 30 seconds or more; “photographic memory” Echoic memory - the brief memory of something a person has just heard. Capacity - limited to what can be heard at any one moment and is smaller than the capacity of iconic memory Duration – lasts longer that iconic — about 2 to 4 seconds What did I just say?


18 Short-Term Memory Short-term memory (STM) (working memory) - the memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used. Selective attention – the ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input. Digit-span test – memory test in which a series of numbers is read to subjects in the experiment who are then asked to recall the numbers in order. Conclusions are that the capacity of STM is about seven items or pieces of information, plus or minus two items, or from five to nine bits of information. “magical number” = 7 Duration: 30 sec. or less Capacity: Limited


20 Long-Term Memory Long-term memory (LTM) - the system of memory into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently. Elaborative rehearsal - a method of transferring information from STM into LTM by making that information meaningful in some way.

21 Synaptic Changes Aplysia- California sea slug responsible for our understanding of neural learning and synaptic strength Classical Conditioning with water and shock Long-Term Potential (LTP)- increase in a synapses firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation Increased release of serotonin at synaptic gaps Stress Hormones- when released trigger the brain to think something important has happened Amygdala produces more proteins for memory Flashbulb Memory- a clear memory of an emotionally significant event

22 Formation of LTMs Engram - the physical change that takes place in the brain when a memory is formed. Consolidation - the changes that take place in the structure and functioning of neurons when an engram is formed.

23 Implicit (nondeclarative) LTM
Implicit or Procedural (nondeclarative) memory - type of long-term memory including memory for skills, procedures, habits, and conditioned responses. These memories are not conscious but are implied to exist because they affect conscious behavior. Skills that people know how to do. Also include emotional associations, habits, and simple conditioned reflexes that may or may not be in conscious awareness.

24 Menu

25 Explicit (Declarative) LTM
Declarative memory – type of long-term memory containing information that is conscious and known (memory for facts). All the things that people know. Semantic memory - type of declarative memory containing general knowledge, such as knowledge of language and information learned in formal education. Episodic memory - type of declarative memory containing personal information not readily available to others, such as daily activities and events.

26 Types of Long Term Memory

27 Retrieval Recall - type of memory retrieval in which the information to be retrieved must be “pulled” from memory with very few external cues. fill-in-the blank test Recognition - the ability to match a piece of information or a stimulus to a stored image or fact. multiple-choice test Retrieval failure – recall has failed (at least temporarily). Tip of the tongue phenomenon. Relearning- learning material for the second time, saves time

28 Cues to Help Remember Retrieval cue – a stimulus for remembering.
“Anchor Point” Encoding specificity - the tendency for memory of information to be improved if related information (such as surroundings or physiological state) available when the memory is first formed is also available when the memory is being retrieved. Priming- unconscious activation of associations in memory State Dependent Memory memories formed during a particular physiological or psychological state will be easier to recall while in a similar state. Mood Congruent Memory Recalling memories consistent with current mood Context Dependent Memory Recalling memories consistent with the same context


30 Déjà Vu Déjà Vu means “I've experienced this before.” Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier similar experience.

31 Daniel Schacter’s sevens sins of memory
Sins of Forgetting Absent-mindedness Transience- decay over time Blocking Sins of distortion Misattribution- confusing the source Suggestibility- misinformation Bias Sin of intrusion Persistence- unwanted memories

32 Forgetting Encoding failure - failure to process information into memory. Memory trace - physical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed. Storage Decay - loss of memory due to the passage of time, during which the memory trace is not used. Disuse - another name for decay, assuming that memories that are not used will eventually decay and disappear.

33 Encoding Failure: Which is the correct penny?

34 Forgetting Hermann Ebbinghaus
Curve of forgetting - a graph showing a distinct pattern in which forgetting is very fast within the first hour after learning a list and then tapers off gradually at about 20-30%

35 Forgetting: Interference Theory
Proactive interference - memory retrieval problem that occurs when older information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of newer information. (forward-acting) Retroactive interference - memory retrieval problem that occurs when newer information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of older information. (backward-acting) Proactive interference – problem driving in England after learning in US.

36 LO 6.10 Different causes of forgetting
AP Principles of effective encoding, storage, and construction of memories Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

37 LO 6.10 Different causes of forgetting
AP Principles of effective encoding, storage, and construction of memories Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

38 Memory Retrieval Problems
Misinformation effect - the tendency of misleading information presented after an event to alter the memories of the event itself. Constructive Memory - referring to the retrieval of memories in which those memories are altered, revised, or influenced by newer information. Source Amnesia- we retain the memory of the event, but not of the context in which we acquired

39 Retrieval Failure Motivated Forgetting Repression
People unknowingly revise their memories. Repression Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory A defense mechanism that banishes painful memories from consciousness to minimize anxiety

40 Eyewitness Testimony Elizabeth Loftus study.
Showed that what people see and hear about an event after the fact can easily affect the accuracy of their memories of that event. Eye witness testimony not always reliable. Admissible in court, but mistakes are made False positive – error of recognition in which people think that they recognize some stimulus that is not actually in memory

41 Amnesia Retrograde amnesia - loss of memory from the point of some injury or trauma backwards, or loss of memory for the past. Anterograde amnesia - loss of memory from the point of injury or trauma forward, or the inability to form new long-term memories (“senile dementia”). Infantile amnesia - the inability to retrieve memories from much before age 3. Autobiographical memory - the memory for events and facts related to one’s personal life story (usually after age 3).

42 Alzheimer’s Disease The primary memory difficulty in Alzheimer’s is anterograde amnesia, although retrograde amnesia can also occur as the disease progresses. There are various drugs in use or in development for use in slowing or stopping the progression of Alzheimer’s disease.

43 Improving Memory Techniques
Study repeatedly Make the material meaningful Activate retrieval cues Use mnemonic devices Minimize interference Sleep more Test your own knowledge, both to rehearse it and to help determine what you do not yet know

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