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History 172 Modern France Haussmannisation Right: Gare Saint Lazare Claude Monet, 1877.

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Presentation on theme: "History 172 Modern France Haussmannisation Right: Gare Saint Lazare Claude Monet, 1877."— Presentation transcript:

1 History 172 Modern France Haussmannisation Right: Gare Saint Lazare Claude Monet, 1877

2 Modernity/Modernisation 18 th Century – Battles between the Ancients and Moderns Rousseau/republicanism – ancient Encyclopédiste/liberalism – modern – French Revolution Liberal (markets, limited suffrage, rationalisation) Radical (republican, democratic, ‘virtue’) Liberal authoritarianism/technocratic (modern) Bonapartism - authoritarian, w/liberal fig-leaf

3 Modernity/Modernisation Spurts: – Latter half of 19 th century Haussmannisation Second industrial revolution – Mid twentieth century Les trentes glorieuses (1950s-1970s)

4 Urban growth vs Urbanisation (19 th c) Urban growth = population of city rises Urbanisation = rising proportion of nation’s population lives in cities Paris: both – Influx from countryside – Annexation 1860: Belleville, La Villette, Montmartre

5 Annexation of banlieues New boundary Old boundary

6 Population 1817 = 700,000 1857 = 1.2 million (before annexation) 1860 = 1.8 million (after) Most who arrived were poorer than those in Paris already

7 Population

8 Meaning of these numbers? 1960s sociological explanations – Uprootedness  loss of cultural context Atomisation Crime – Eastern Paris Indigents: more than 12% of population – Half of population died before age of 19 – Infanticide – orphanages (1/3 of children deposited there died within one year)

9 Disease Cholera 1832, 1849, 1884 Deaths were high 1832  13,000 die Right: Alfred Rethel, upon reading Heine’s description of Paris in 1832

10 1832 Cholera That night, the balls were more crowded than ever; hilarious laughter all but drowned the louder music; one grew hot in the chahut, a fairly unequivocal dance, and gulped all kinds of ices and other cold drinks--when suddenly the merriest of the harlequins felt a chill in his legs, took off his mask, and to the amazement of all revealed a violet-blue face. It was soon discovered that this was no joke; the laughter died, and several wagon loads were driven directly from the ball to the Hotel-Dieu, the main hospital, where they arrived in their gaudy fancy dress and promptly died, too...[T]hose dead were said to have been buried so fast that not even their checkered fool's clothes were taken off them; and merrily as they lived they now lie in their graves. – Heinrich Heine, German poet and journalist (1832)

11 Meaning of these numbers? Newer sociological interpretations – Chain migration (not uprootedness) – Communities in Paris Gare Montparnasse  Brittany Gare de Lyon  Burgundy, Auvergne, Lyon Saint Lazare  Normandy Gare de l’Est  Alsatian – Paris becomes polyglot: migrants arrived with different dialects and even languages (breton)

12 Contemporary anxieties about teeming cities: Who is who? Who can you trust? Often treated poor as different race – Phrenology: reading of skulls for indications of who the person is: attempts to assign a typology to people based on physical traits – Certain physical traits indicated that one might be a criminal – The moral and the biological are conflated Emile Zola (novelist): genes predispose people to social behaviour – E.g., crime, alcoholism

13 Contemporary views of Paris ‘A great manufactory of putrefaction in which poverty, plague… and disease labor in concert and where sunlight barely ever enters. It is a foul hole where plants wilt and perish and four out of seven children die within their first year.’ – Victor Considérant

14 Contemporary views of Paris ‘How ugly Paris seems after one year away. How one is stifled in these dark, damp, narrow corridors which we are pleased to call the streets of Paris. One would think it was an underground city, so sluggish and obscure. People throng in the liquid darkness like reptiles.’ – Vicomte de Launay

15 East / West divide East, banlieueWest

16 1848 Fear of masses and socialism Election of Louis Napoleon – Elected president in 1848 – male popular vote – Became Emperor in 1851 – plebiscite Nov 1852 1852: First time provinces impose their politics upon Paris??

17 Haussmann Appointed Préfet of the Dept of Seine in 1853 Given extraordinary powers to remake Paris Carried through rapid changes that others had tried before – ‘It is easier to slice through the middle of a pie than through the crusts’

18 Haussmannisation Circulation, circulation – Air – Capital Prevent barricades

19 1830 – Romantic view

20 1848 – Sober View

21 Implementing Haussmannisation Forced expropriation by state State sells to private developers (cheap) From ‘bankers’ to ‘banking’ – new financing – Even lower classes begin holding money in banks – De-personalisation of bank industry – banks take on legal personalities – All this increases credit Taxes, tourism & economic growth would pay for it Were Napoleon III and Haussmann proto-Keynesians?

22 Imperialism of the ‘straight line’ Cutting through Paris with boulevards

23 Show-off Cities See and be seen Tourism Anonymity, Alienation? The flaneur: someone who moves spontaneously through the city, observing, being seen, consuming… somewhat alienated but engaged with fascination… less ‘organic’ relationship to city

24 Building Avenue de l’Opéra

25 Today

26 Map of Paris

27 Étoile – western Paris

28 Orderly Consumerism

29 Alienation? Cities and perpetual motion

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