# Methods general field methods and energetics Capture methods Marking Field Animals Body Measurements Telemetry.

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Methods general field methods and energetics Capture methods Marking Field Animals Body Measurements Telemetry

Capture Methods Small mammals: Two most common traps: Tomahawk Sherman Pitfall

Larger mammals: Capture Methods Tomahawk traps Darting Snap traps Snare Box trap

Capture Methods Birds: Mist net Cannon net Raptor Trap Walk-in trap http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gi9NJBOWHuo

Capture Methods Reptiles: Pit trap Noose capture Hoop Net (aquatic reptiles and fish)

Capture Methods amphibians: Pit traps Noose capture Mostly, you just walk up to them and pick them up Net (aquatic)

Marking Field Animals mammals birds Reptiles Amphibians Small mammals Ear tags pit tags Ear clipping Leg bands Toe clipping fish

Methods general field methods and energetics Capture methods Marking Field Animals Body Measurements Telemetry

Body Measures Body Size Body Weight= mass in mg, g, kgs = some measure of skeletal size Snout-vent length Most Reptiles Turtles: carapace width Most Mammals Body length ± Tail length Birds Tarsus Keel WHY? Fish

1. Body Condition Index Body condition is a measure of the energetic content of a given body size –Generally two ways to evaluate it: B) Graph mass by body size evaluate residuals A) Calculate Body Condition Index BCI = body mass some measure of body size Can graph this against a trait But this does not correct for mean population size Residual mass 0 -10 +10 # offspring produced Most common method, but 2009 newer method recommended

1. Body Condition Index B) Graph mass by body size evaluate residuals Most common method, but 2009 newer method recommended Residual mass 0 -10 +10 # offspring produced This assumes linear relationship between mass and size But it doesn’t usually. It’s not ISOMETRIC, It’s ALLOMETRIC So incorporate Y=aM b

Alligators in the Everglades Snout-vent Length weight

2. Fluctuating Asymmetry Measure the symmetry of left and right body parts Animals strive for symmetry The level of asymmetry in a population is supposed to be indicative of a stressful environment during development

Methods general field methods and energetics Capture methods Marking Field Animals Body Measurements Telemetry

Radiotelemetry: –transmitter size can be quite small (<1 g) –Transmission distance limited by geography –Relatively inexpensive (\$150 per transmitter) –Can transmit location, movement, some physiological data Satellite Telemetry (GPS): –Larger transmitters (>30 g) –No limitation on transmission distance –Extraordinarily expensive (\$10,000 per trans) –Can transmit location, movement, or physiological data Biotelemetry –Can record heart rate, depth, movement, speed –Usually the unit on the animal must be retrieved to download the data

A) Presence/Absence--automated SNOW HIGH WINDS Snow Storm, May 2002 Antenna Solar panel Battery Receiver Data logger

B) Manual Localization -100 0 100 300 500 700 900 CORT implantblank implant treatment % change in activity range Example: CORT in sparrows

C) Multi-tower localization--automated State of the Art Telemetry project Martin Wikelski, Director of Max Planck Institute for Ornithology Barro Colorado Island, Panama http://www.princeton.edu/~wikelski/

C) Multi-tower localization--automated overview antenna Heart rate localization

Telemetry Radiotelemetry: –transmitter size can be quite small (<1 g) –Transmission distance limited by geography –Relatively inexpensive (\$150 per transmitter) –Can transmit location, movement, some physiological data Satellite Telemetry (GPS): –Larger transmitters (>25 g) –No limitation on transmission distance –Extraordinarily expensive (\$10,000 per trans) –Can transmit location, movement, some physiological data Biotelemetry –Can record heart rate, depth, movement, speed –Usually the unit on the animal must be retrieved to download the data

Satellite Telemetry

Telemetry Radiotelemetry: –transmitter size can be quite small (<1 g) –Transmission distance limited by geography –Relatively inexpensive (\$150 per transmitter) –Can transmit location, movement, some physiological data Satellite Telemetry (GPS): –Larger transmitters (>30 g) –No limitation on transmission distance –Extraordinarily expensive (\$10,000 per trans) –Can transmit location, movement, or physiological data Biotelemetry –Can record heart rate, depth, movement, speed –Usually the unit on the animal must be retrieved to download the data

Biotelemetry Weddell Seal Work in the Antarctic

Telemetry Radiotelemetry: –transmitter size can be quite small (<1 g) –Transmission distance limited by geography –Relatively inexpensive (\$150 per transmitter) –Can transmit location, movement, some physiological data Satellite Telemetry (GPS): –Larger transmitters (>30 g) –No limitation on transmission distance –Extraordinarily expensive (\$10,000 per trans) –Can transmit location, movement, or physiological data Biotelemetry –Can record heart rate, depth, movement, speed –Usually the unit on the animal must be retrieved to download the data

Methods general field methods and energetics Capture methods Marking Field Animals Body Measurements Telemetry

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