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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 1/37 Introduction to 2D Graphics Using OpenGL 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 2/37 A well-known industry standard for real-time 2D and 3D computer graphics Available on most platforms Desktop operating systems, mobile devices (OpenGL ES), browsers (WebGL) Older (OpenGL 1.0) API provides features for rapid prototyping; newer API (OpenGL 2.0 and newer) provides more flexibility and control Many old features available in new API as “deprecated” functionality This year for the first time we will use the new API exclusively Why Learn About OpenGL? 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 3/37 A good stepping stone towards 3D – many issues much easier to understand in 2D no need to simulate lights, cameras, the physics of light interacting with objects, etc. intro to modeling vs. rendering and other notions get used to rapid prototyping in OpenGL, both of designs and concepts 2D is still really important and the most common use of computer graphics, e.g. in UI/UX, documents, browsers Why Learn 2D first? 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 4/37 Graphics Platforms (1/4) Applications that only write pixels are rare Application Model (AM) is the data being represented by a rendered image manipulated by user interaction with the application Graphics Platform is intermediary between App and platform rendering and interaction handling 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 5/37 Graphics Platforms (2/4) Graphics Platform runs in conjunction with window manager Determines what section of the screen is allocated to the application Handles “chrome” (title bar, resize handles); client area is controlled by application 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 6/37 Graphics Platforms (3/4) Typically, AM uses client area for: user interface to collect input to the AM display some representation of AM in the viewport This is usually called the scene, in the context of both 2D and 3D applications Scene is rendered by the scene generator, which is typically separate from the UI generator, which renders rest of UI 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 7/37 Early raster graphics packages/libraries/platforms RamTek library 1981, Apple QuickDraw 1984 Microsoft's Graphics Display Interface (GDI 1990, now GDI+), Java.awt.Graphics2D Earliest packages usually had these characteristics: geometric primitives/shapes, appearance attributes specified in attribute bundles (a.k.a. ”graphical contexts”/”brushes”), applied modally rather than in a parameter list for each primitive (too many parameters for that) integer coordinates map directly to screen pixels on output device immediate mode (no record kept of display commands) no built-in functions for applying transforms to primitives no built-in support for component hierarchy (no composite shapes) Early packages were little more than assembly languages for display device Graphics Platforms (4/4) 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 8/37 Geometric Scalability Integer coordinates mapped to display pixels affects apparent size of image: large on low-res display & small on high-res display Application needs flexible internal coordinate representation floating point is essential float to fixed conversion required; actually a general mapping Problems with Early Graphics Platforms (1/3) 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 9/37 Display updates To perform operations on objects in scene, application must keep list of all primitives and their attributes (along with application-specific data) Some updates are transitory “feedback animations,” only a display change Consider an interior-design layout application when user picks up an object and drags to new location, object follows cursor movement interim movements do not relate to data changes in application model, purely visual changes application model only updated when user drops object (releases mouse button) in immediate mode, application must re-specify entire scene each time cursor moves Alternatively, use a retained mode platform, which will store an internal representation of all objects in scene called a display model to distinguish it from application model Problems with Early Graphics Platforms (2/3) 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 10/37 Interaction Consider a simple clock example: User clicks minute hand, location must be mapped to relevant application object; called pick correlation Developer responsible for pick correlation (usually some kind of "point-in- bounding box rectangle" test based on pick coordinates) find top-most object at clicked location may need to find entire composite object hierarchy from lowest-level primitive to highest level composite e.g., triangle -> hand -> clock Solution: retained mode can do pick correlation, as it has a representation of scene Problems with Early Graphics Platforms (3/3) 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 11/37 Device-independent floating point coordinate system packages convert “application-space" to "device-space" coordinates Specification of hierarchy support building scenes as hierarchy of objects, using transforms (scale, rotate, translate) to place children into parents' coordinate systems support manipulating composites as coherent objects Smart Objects (Widgets, etc.) graphic objects have innate behaviors and interaction responses e.g., button that automatically highlights itself when cursor is over it Modern Graphics Platforms (1/2) 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 12/37 Modern Graphics Platforms (2/2) 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 13/37 Immediate Mode (OpenGL, DirectX) Application model: stores both geometric information and non-geometric information in Application Database. Platform keeps no record of primitives that compose scene Immediate Mode Vs Retained Mode 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 14/37 Retained Mode (WPF, SVG, most game engines) Application model in app and Display model in platform Display model contains information that defines geometry to be viewed Display model is a geometric subset of Application model (typically a scene graph) Simple drawing application does not need Application model (e.g., clock example) No right answer on which to use – context-dependent tradeoffs (see Chapter 16) Immediate Mode Vs Retained Mode 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 15/37 Immediate-mode graphics API No display model, application must direct OpenGL to draw primitives Implemented in C, also works in C++ Bindings available for many other programming languages Cross-platform Also available on mobile (OpenGL ES*) and in the browser (WebGL) Different platforms provide ‘glue’ code for initializing OpenGL within the desktop manager (e.g. GLX, WGL) Labs and projects use Qt library to abstract this away OpenGL (1/3) 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014 * - ES: “Embedded Systems”

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 16/37 Created by Silicon Graphics Inc. (SGI, in 1992, now managed by the non-profit Khronos Group (http://khronos.org)http://sgi.comhttp://khronos.org Originally aimed to allow any OpenGL program to run on a variety of graphics hardware devices Invented when “fixed-function” hardware was the norm Techniques were implemented in the hardware; OpenGL calls sent commands to the hardware to activate / configure different features Now supports programmable hardware Modern graphics cards are miniature, highly parallel computers themselves, with many-core GPUs, on- board RAM, etc. GPUs are a large collection of highly parallel high speed arithmetic units; several thousand cores! GPUs run simple programs (called “shaders”): take in vertices and other data and output a color value for an individual pixel. GLSL, (O)GL Shader Language, is C-like language, control arithmetic pipelines Implement new features in shaders instead of waiting for hardware vendors to support them in h/w Your final project (typically a team project) will involve writing your choice of shaders OpenGL (2/3) 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 17/37 Fixed-function API provides features that make it easier to prototype e.g., the OGL library implements much of the linear algebra needed to move objects on the screen GL utility library (“GLU”) provides additional high-level utilities Programmable API implements most of the fixed-function API for backwards compatibility, but uses shaders for implementation Only true for desktop; must use shaders exclusively to program with OpenGL ES 2.0+ or WebGL We will use GLM (OpenGL Mathematics) to do our linear algebra instead of using the Fixed-function API OpenGL (3/3) 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 18/37 In future labs and your final project you will write your own shaders, but for now we will provide shaders for you. Various types of input to shaders Attributes are provided per-vertex Uniforms are provided per-object; have the same value for a group of vertices OpenGL has many built in types including vectors and matrices To provide this input you must provide an identifier (“location”) of the Attribute or Uniform glGetAttribLocation for attributes glGetUniformLocation for uniforms The first lab will go into more detail about how to use these functions 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014 Shaders

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 19/37 Objects in OpenGL are composed of triangles and quads. We can use these to build arbitrary polygons, and approximate smooth shapes. Representing Shapes A complex polygon made of triangle primitives A complex polygon made of quad primitives An approximate circle made of triangle primitives 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 20/37 Cartesian coordinates in math, engineering typically modeled as floating point typically X increasing right, Y increasing up Display (physical) coordinates integer only typically X increasing right, Y increasing down 1 unit = 1 pixel But we want to be insulated from physical display coordinates OpenGL is the intermediary Coordinate Systems (1/3) 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 21/37 OpenGL Coordinates Choose a convention For us: X increases right, Y increases up Units are based on the size of the window or screen Visible area stretches to fill window Units are percentage of window size, don’t correspond to physical units or pixels Define coordinate system using the projection matrix. Supply it to shader as a uniform variable (the term projection matrix will become clear) Note: 3d glm functions still work in the special case of 2D – just use our defaults glm::mat4 projection; // Our projection matrix is a 4x4 matrix projection = glm::ortho(-1, // X coordinate of left edge 1, // X coordinate of right edge -1, // Y coordinate of bottom edge 1, // Y coordinate of top edge 1, // Z coordinate of the “near” plane -1); // Z coordinate of the “far” plane Coordinate Systems (2/3) 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 22/37 Two choices on how to think Draw everything in OpenGL coordinate system This is inconvenient: instead choose your own abstract coordinate system to suit your needs for each object, then specify all its primitives to OpenGL using these coordinates. Specify a transformation to map the object coordinates to OpenGL coordinates. When we say “transformation,” we usually mean a composition of scale, rotate and translate transforms Coordinate Systems (3/3) Object Coordinates Display 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014 Application Coordinates

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 23/37 We will use GLM to do linear algebra for us and build the mapping matrix In addition to the projection matrix mentioned earlier, also keep track of a model and a view matrix. More about the significance of these matrices in viewing lectures; for now only modify the model matrix which is used to position objects For the following examples assume we are already keeping track of the model matrix initialized like this: glm::mat4 model = glm::mat4(1.0); // Creates an identity matrix 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014 Transformations (1/3)

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 24/37 Geometric Transformations in 2D (relative to a center for Scale and Rotate!) Positive angles rotate counter-clockwise, here about the origin (i.e., Z-axis) Transformations (2/3) OriginalTranslate model *= glm::translate(.1,.1, 0); model *= glm::rotate(-45, glm::vec3(0, 0, 1)); Original Rotate Scale model *= glm::scale(2, 2, 1); Original 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 25/37 Transformations can be composed (matrix composition) but are NOT commutative, so proper order is vital Transformations (3/3) 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014 model *= glm::scale(2, 1, 1); model *= glm::rotate(-90, glm::vec3(0, 0, 1)); model *= glm::scale(2, 1, 1);

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 26/37 Illustrate the use of OpenGL by going through step-by-step how to create a simple clock application. First a bunch of setup before drawing Start by specifying vertex data for a square: Create a Vertex Buffer Object (VBO). This is essentially an array of data stored in the GPU; we’ll copy vertex data to a VBO Clock Demo (1/5) GLfloat vertexData[] = { -.7, -.7, // Vertex 1.7, -.7, // Vertex 2.7,.7, // Vertex 3 -.7,.7, // Vertex 4 }; 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014 GLuint vboID; // Unsigned Integer glGenBuffers(1, &vboID); // Generate 1 buffer (array); not initialized

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 27/37 Bind the VBO; this tells the GPU which (of potentially an arbitrary number of buffers you’ve created) to use for subsequent calls Now we copy the vertex data to the GPU 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014 Clock Demo (2/5) glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, // Symbolic constant for data vboID); // This is the vboID we generated on the // previous slide. glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(vertexData), // Tell OpenGL how much data we have vertexData, // Pointer to the data GL_STATIC_DRAW); // Tell OpenGL that our data will not // be modified.

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 28/37 Now that the data is stored as a VBO, i.e. byte array, on the GPU, we need to tell OpenGL what the data means. We do this with a Vertex Array Object (VAO). First generate and bind a VAO identifier Now we can define the VAO’s attributes 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014 Clock Demo (3/5) GLuint vaoID; glGenVertexArrays(1, &vaoID); // Create 1 VAO glBindVertexArray(vaoID); // Bind the VAO glEnableVertexAttribArray( );// vertexIdentifier gotten from glGetAttribLocation glVertexAttribPointer(, 2, // Elements per vertex (2 for (x, y) in 2D case) GL_FLOAT, // Type of the data GL_FALSE, // We don’t want to normalize the vertices 0, // Stride: Use 0 for a tightly packed array (void*) 0); // Pointer: Byte offset of the first element in the array; // cast to generic pointer type to match argument type

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 29/37 In OpenGL only one buffer bound at any time, now we can release it (this does not erase the data) Now we are done with setup and finally ready to draw the square! In the render loop The result is a square centered in the window: 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014 Clock Demo (4/5) glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, 0); // Binding buffer 0 is how we unbind glBindVertexArray(0); // ditto for the VertexArray glBindVertexArray(vaoID); // Bind our VAO again glDrawArrays(GL_QUADS, // The drawing mode (quads in this case) 0, // The index to start drawing from 4); // The number of vertices to draw glBindVertexArray(0); // Unbind the VAO as good practice

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 30/37 X ✓ Order is important: vertices must be specified in counter-clockwise order relative to the viewer. Otherwise nothing shows up! Winding order determines the direction of the normal vector used in the “lighting calculation”; if the normal is pointing the wrong way, we won’t see anything Counter-clockwise winding consistent with the “right-hand rule” 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014 Winding Order GLfloat vertexData[] = { -.7, -.7,.7, -.7,.7,.7, -.7,.7, }; GLfloat vertexData[] = { -.7, -.7, -.7,.7,.7,.7,.7, -.7, };

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 31/37 We’ll draw a simplified hour hand using a quad rotated around the origin. One could do the same thing to draw minute and second hands: float hourAngle = -45; // Rotate 45 degrees clockwise float width =.01, height =.4; // Rotate around the Z axis model *= glm::rotate(hourAngle, glm::vec3(0, 0, 1)); GLfloat hourVertexData[] = { -width, 0, width, 0, width, height, -width, height }; // Set up VBOs and VAOs as before Clock Demo (5/5) 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 32/37 Outline of the Clock Example 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014 See /course/cs123/src/clock_demo for runnable demo and source code

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 33/37 Rapidly displaying sequence of images to create an illusion of movement Flipbook (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AslYxmU8xlc)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AslYxmU8xlc Keyframe animation: spec keyframes, computer interpolates (e.g., ball bouncing) Animation (1/3) Keyframe Animation Flipbook 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 34/37 Animation (2/3) 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014 Idea: Move the seconds hand incrementally every time we render Given the number of seconds elapsed, how many degrees should we rotate the seconds hand? need to convert from seconds to degrees Idea: Use rotations around the clock as a common conversion factor Seconds per revolution: 60 Degrees per revolution: 360 Thus,

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 35/37 Animation (3/3) 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014 Clock lablet: Run /course/cs123/bin/cs123_clock_demo Source code: /course/cs123/src/clock_demo float secondsElapsed =...; // num seconds since last render const float SECONDS_PER_REVOLUTION = 60; const float DEGREES_PER_REVOLUTION = 360; secondsAngle += -1 // Turn clockwise * secondsElapsed // Δt * DEGREES_PER_REVOLUTION // Turn 360 degrees... / SECONDS_PER_REVOLUTION; //... every 60 seconds

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 36/37 We will have a 2D lab that will be held this week: Pong! Generate graphics and UI for the classic game using OpenGL OpenGL 2D Lab 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014

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CS123 | INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS Andries van Dam © 37/37 Preface, Intro as useful background Chapter 2 – while written in terms of MSFT’s WPF, a retained-mode library, the concepts carry over to OGL. Useful to know about HTML/XML style syntax, given its prominence, but don’t worry about the syntactic details 2D Graphics using OpenGL – 9/9/2014 Book Sections

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