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Chapter 4 Making Connections. 2 Introduction  Examine the interface between a computer and a device. This interface occurs at the physical layer.  Connecting.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Making Connections. 2 Introduction  Examine the interface between a computer and a device. This interface occurs at the physical layer.  Connecting."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Making Connections

2 2 Introduction  Examine the interface between a computer and a device. This interface occurs at the physical layer.  Connecting peripheral devices to a computer (called interface) has, in the past, been a fairly challenging task.  Newer interfaces have made this task much easier.  Interface standards define modes of transmission:  Serial/parallel  Simplex/duplex  Asynchronous/synchronous  Point-to-point/multi-point

3 3 Standards Organizations  International Telecommunications Union (ITU) (formerly CCITT)  Electronics Industries Association (EIA)  Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)  International Organization for Standards (ISO)  American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

4 4 DCEs and DTEs  Communication circuits can be defined in terms of the devices that are designed to transmit signals on a circuit, and the destination  DCE - Data communicating equipment: The device that forwards the signals being sent along a particular circuit, e.g., a Modem  DTE – Data terminating equipment: The device to which the signal is being directed, e.g., a computer

5 5 Interface Standards  Electrical:  Voltages, line capacitance, and other electrical characteristics  Mechanical:  Connector or plug description  Functional:  Function of each pin or circuit that is used in a particular interface  Procedural:  How the particular circuits are used to perform an operation  For example, the functional component may describe two circuits, Request to Send and Clear to Send  The procedural component describes how those two circuits are used so that the DTE can transfer data to the DCE

6 6 Two Important Standards  EIA-232F – an older standard originally designed to connect a modem to a computer.  USB (Universal Serial Bus) – a newer standard that is much more powerful than EIA-232F

7 7 EIA-232F  Older interface standard designed to connect a device such as a modem to a computer or terminal.  Originally named RS-232 but has gone through many revisions.  The electrical component is defined by another standard: V.28.  The mechanical component is often defined by ISO 2110, the DB-25 connector. The DB-9 connector is now more common than the DB-25.  The functional and procedural components are defined by the V.24 standard.



10 10 Serial & Parallel

11 11 Data flow  Circuits can be designed to permit data to flow in one or both directions:  Simplex  One-way transmission  Half-duplex  Two-way communication link, but only one system can “talk” at a time  Full duplex  Transmit in both directions simultaneously

12 12 Universal Serial Bus (USB)  The USB interface is a modern standard for interconnecting a wide range of peripheral devices to computers.  Supports plug and play.  Can daisy-chain multiple devices.  USB 1.0 – 12 Mbps; Use 2.0 – 480 Mbps; USB 3.0 – 4.8 Gbps.  The USB interface defines all four components.  The electrical component defines two wires VBUS and Ground to carry a 5-volt signal, while the D+ and D- wires carry the data and signaling information.  The mechanical component precisely defines the size of four different connectors and uses only four wires (the metal shell counts as one more connector).  The functional and procedural components are fairly complex but are based on the polled bus.  The computer takes turns asking each peripheral if it has anything to send.

13 13 FireWire  Low-cost digital interface  Capable of supporting transfer speeds of up to 400 Mbps  Hot pluggable  Supports two types of data connections:  Asynchronous connection  Isochronous connection

14 14 SCSI and iSCSI  SCSI (Small Computer System Interface)  A technique for interfacing a computer to high-speed devices such as hard disk drives, tape drives, CDs, and DVDs.  Designed to support devices of a more permanent nature.  SCSI is a systems interface.  Need SCSI adapter.  iSCSI (Internet SCSI)  A technique for interfacing disk storage to a computer via the Internet.  It looks like the disk storage is down the hall, but it could be anywhere on the Internet.

15 15 InfiniBand & Fibre Channel  InfiniBand – a serial connection or bus that can carry multiple channels of data at the same time  Can support data transfer speeds of 2.5 billion bits (2.5 gigabits) per second and address thousands of devices, using both copper wire and fiber-optic cables  A network of high-speed links and switches  Fibre Channel – also a serial, high-speed network that connects a computer to multiple input/output devices  Supports data transfer rates up to billions of bits per second, but can support the interconnection of up to 126 devices only

16 16 Asynchronous Connections  A type of connection defined at the data link layer.  No “clocking signal” to say when a frame starts or ends, so, how does the receiver know when a frame starts or ends?  Add a Start bit, while a Stop bit is added to the end of the frame.  An optional parity bit can be added to the frame which can be used to detect errors.  Used in slower, cheaper equipment, because of start/stop overhead.

17 17 Synchronous Connections  A second type of connection defined at the data link layer.  A synchronous connection creates a large package (frame) that consists of header and trailer flags, control information, optional address information, error detection code (checksum), and the data.  A synchronous connection is more elaborate but transfers data in a more efficient manner.

18 18 Isochronous Connections  A third type of connection defined at the data link layer used to support real-time applications  Data must be delivered at just the right speed (real- time) – not too fast and not too slow  Typically an isochronous connection must allocate resources on both ends to maintain real-time  USB and Firewire can both support isochronous

19 19 Terminal-to-Mainframe (I)  A point-to-point connection is a direct, unshared connection between a terminal and a mainframe computer.  A multipoint connection is a shared connection between multiple terminals and a mainframe computer.  The mainframe is called the primary, and each terminal is called a secondary.

20 20 Terminal-to-Mainframe (II)  To allow a terminal to transmit data to a mainframe, the mainframe must poll the terminal  Two basic forms of polling: roll-call polling and hub polling  In roll-call polling, the mainframe polls each terminal in a round-robin fashion  In hub polling, the mainframe polls the first terminal, and this terminal passes the poll onto the next terminal

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