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DR SWATI PRASHANT MD Paediatrics Index Medical College,Indore,MP,India.

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Presentation on theme: "DR SWATI PRASHANT MD Paediatrics Index Medical College,Indore,MP,India."— Presentation transcript:

1 DR SWATI PRASHANT MD Paediatrics Index Medical College,Indore,MP,India

2  Currently the National Immunization Programme (NIP) includes vaccines against six diseases, viz. tuberculosis, diphtheria, whooping cough,tetanus, polio and measles. In addition,  Hepatitis B vaccine is proposed to be included in the NIP  by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

3  Active immunity  Passive immunity  Ideal vaccine  Only vaccine preventable diseases  Types ofvaccines  Live  Killed  Toxoids  Other antigens by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

4  Herd immunity  Practical aspects of vaccines  Contraindications and non contraindications by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

5  Freeze dried  At birth  Bovine  0.05 to.1 ml ID  STORAGE 2- 8 by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

6  OPV trivalent live atttenuated  Mono,bivalent  SABIN  Contraindicated in HIV, IMMUNOCOMPROMISED  IPV –KILLED SALK  3 ANTIGENS, 3 DOSES IM SC  VAP by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

7  3 DOSES  IM  LF DIPTHERIA  TETANUS LF  PETUSIS WHOLE CELL/ ACELLULAR by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

8  EDMONSTON ZAGREB STRAIN  1000 INFECTIVE VIRUS UNITS  LIVE FREEZE DRIED  SCHEUDULE by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

9  JERRYL LINN  0.5 ML –AS MMR by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

10  RA 27/3  AS MMR  OR RUBELLA  CONGENITAL RUBELLA SYNDROME by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

11  0,1,6 DOSES  RD –DNA VACCINE  SCHEDULE  IF MOTHER NEGATIVE  IF STATUS NOT KNOWN  IF MOTHER IS POSITIVE  ROLE OF HB –IG  by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

12  VI –POLYSAC VAC  ORAL TY-21A VAC  GIVEN EVRY 3 YEARS  70-% EFFICACY by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

13  6 SEROTYPES, B TYPE IS IMPORTANT  SCHEDULE by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

14  OKA STRAIN  95% SEROCONVERSION  SCHEDULE  CONTRAINDICATIONS by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

15  PNEUMOCOCCAL  ROTAVIRUS  CHOLERA VACCINE  MENINGOCOCCAL  INFLUENZA  HEPATITIS A  RABIES  SWINE FLU  CERVICAL VAC by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

16  MALARIA  HIV  H PYLORI by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

17 a number of vaccines are available in the country. While it is not possible to include all the available vaccines in NIP, it is important that complete information guidelines if any, should be made available to the parents FOR family budgets. by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

18 Many of these vaccines are being promoted directly by the vaccine companies. OfteN appeal to the parents’ emotions or so that they provide only selective scientific information about the disease concerned that leads the parents to only think in terms of getting their child vaccinated. unethical but many a times diverts the meager resources costlier newer vaccines. by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

19 The problem is often compounded by lack of easy access to unbiased information or national guidelines about these vaccines. This imposes a limitation on the recommendations to be made for these vaccines. Under the constraints of limited epidemiological information, justification, indications and options for commonly used vaccines are described in the following paragraphs. by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

20 Among the available vaccines typhoid, Hepatitis B and MMR are high priority for immunization of young children and have been rightly included in the state sponsored immunization programme in india by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

21 T yphoid is an important public health problem. school children but also in preschool age group including infants and toddlers less than 2 years of age. 2, Currently two types of typhoid vaccines are available-Vi antigen derived from polysaccharide capsule and the other one is in the form of enteric coated capsules for oral use. by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

22 The Vi antigen vaccine is injectable, requires single dose and can be administered only after the age of two years since it is less immunogenic in infants. The oral vaccine is in the form of enteric coated capsules. Three doses are required to be given on alternate days. It can be given to children over 6 years of age and above because younger children cannot swallow the large capsules of the vaccine. Both vaccines are almost equally effective and require revaccination every 3-5 years. by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

23 In view of high incidence of typhoid, typhoid vaccination is strongly advocated. In our setting it should be started at 2 years of age with Vi antigen vaccine and at least one more dose be given at 5 years of age. by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

24 Hepatitis B vaccine is quite well-established. carrier rate of 4.71%. 4 chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatic carcinoma in later years. three doses of this vaccine should be administered to all infants, preferably starting the first dose within 12 hours of birth by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

25 MMR is a combined vaccine for protection against measles, mumps and rubella. It is recommended to be given at months of age. measles vaccine is given at the age of 9-12 months instead of 12 months or later as in the developed countries. MMR vaccine at months, a second dose of measles vaccine is recommended at 4-6 years by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

26 Rubella has serious teratogenic effects in the Congenital Rubella Syndrome. The rate of perinatal transmission is 40-50% overall and 90% during first twelve weeks of pregnancy. by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

27 Mumps Mumps being uncommon in children less than 12 months of age, all children beyond this age needs to be immunized Thus a combined vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella available at a relatively low cost is a good option to be offered to all eligible children. by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

28 Haemophilus Influenza B is a common early childhood infection bacterial meningiTS bacterial pneumonia deaths among children < 5 years of age. Studies show that Hib is responsible for 30-50% of confirmed bacterial meningitis cases in children. by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

29 Hib is generally the most common endemic cause of bacterial meningitis in children. Similarly bacterial pneumonia is well known to be a leading killer of children in areas of India where infant morality rates remain high. by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

30 Hepatitis A virtually all children are infected with HAV by 15 years of age which provides them with a life long immunity. For protection against Hepatitis A two doses of vaccine are to be given six months apart each dose costing about 800 rupees each. by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

31 Invasive meningococcal disease is most common in children with rates of more than 25/1,00,000 population in the first four months of life. Almost 50% cases occur in children less than 2years of age. 8 Meningococcal vaccine is a polysaccharide vaccine effective against meningococcemia as well as N. meningitides meningitis which have a high mortality rate. by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

32 Currently a quadrivalent vaccine is available which provides protection against A, C, Y and W135 strains. As one dose of vaccine provides protection for 3- 5 years and repeated doses result in hypo response, meningococcal vaccine is recommended for prevention among the close contacts and for control of epidemics and not as a part of routine immunization; as often is the practice. by dr swati prashant,MD. paeditrics4all.com

33  OUR other websites  Paediatrics4all.com  Pharmacology4students.com  Psm4students.com  Microbiology4students.com


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