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Input and Output The User Connection. Input-Getting Data From the User Some data such as a scanned bar code or speech that is spoken to the computer can.

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Presentation on theme: "Input and Output The User Connection. Input-Getting Data From the User Some data such as a scanned bar code or speech that is spoken to the computer can."— Presentation transcript:

1 Input and Output The User Connection

2 Input-Getting Data From the User Some data such as a scanned bar code or speech that is spoken to the computer can go directly for processing Some data such as a scanned bar code or speech that is spoken to the computer can go directly for processing Some input must go through intermediate handling such as translating a source document into machine readable data Some input must go through intermediate handling such as translating a source document into machine readable data

3 Keyboard Standard keyboards are common input devices on computers Standard keyboards are common input devices on computers Specialized keyboards exist such as fast food restaurant ordering systems Specialized keyboards exist such as fast food restaurant ordering systems Cordless keyboards use a battery powered transmitter instead of a cord to transfer data to the computer Cordless keyboards use a battery powered transmitter instead of a cord to transfer data to the computer Ergonomic keyboards are specially designed for a natural position of the hands Ergonomic keyboards are specially designed for a natural position of the hands

4 Ergonomics A field of study concerned with healthy, comfortable, efficient interactions between people and machines A field of study concerned with healthy, comfortable, efficient interactions between people and machines RSI-repetitive strain injury can be sustained from doing the same thing over and over such as typing. Ergonomically designed keyboards can lessen these injuries RSI-repetitive strain injury can be sustained from doing the same thing over and over such as typing. Ergonomically designed keyboards can lessen these injuries

5 Pointing Devices Allows user to point, set the insertion point, or click something to issue a command Allows user to point, set the insertion point, or click something to issue a command Mouse Mouse Mechanical Mechanical Optical Optical Cordless Cordless

6 Other Pointing Devices Trackball -variation on a mouse where you move the ball and the device stays still Trackball -variation on a mouse where you move the ball and the device stays still Touchpad -pressure sensitive area that you physically touch to give commands; common on laptops Touchpad -pressure sensitive area that you physically touch to give commands; common on laptops Joystick -lever with a handgrip Joystick -lever with a handgrip

7 Even More Pointing Devices Graphics Tablet or Digitizing Tablet- invisible grid of electronic dots that are activated by a pen-like stylus or a puck Graphics Tablet or Digitizing Tablet- invisible grid of electronic dots that are activated by a pen-like stylus or a puck Touch screens - beams of light emitted from edge of screen can determine when a user touches the screen by the broken beams or can use a light pen Touch screens - beams of light emitted from edge of screen can determine when a user touches the screen by the broken beams or can use a light pen Pen based computing -uses a stylus to select items; common in handheld devices Pen based computing -uses a stylus to select items; common in handheld devices

8 Source Data Automation Use of special equipment to collect data at its source Use of special equipment to collect data at its source Does not require re-keying which eliminates mistakes Does not require re-keying which eliminates mistakes Three primary areas: Three primary areas: Magnetic Ink Character Recogniton (MICR) Magnetic Ink Character Recogniton (MICR) Scanners Scanners Other Optical Methods Other Optical Methods

9 MICR Uses a machine to read characters written in an ink made of magentized particles Uses a machine to read characters written in an ink made of magentized particles Common example is check numbers at the bank Common example is check numbers at the bank MICR inscriber writes information using the special ink MICR inscriber writes information using the special ink

10 Scanners Optical scanners, now just scanners, convert text or drawings into machine readable format Optical scanners, now just scanners, convert text or drawings into machine readable format Using Optical Recognition, a light beam scans the item and changes it into electrical impulses for processing Using Optical Recognition, a light beam scans the item and changes it into electrical impulses for processing Common example is the bar code reader Common example is the bar code reader

11 Document Imaging Process of converting paper copies to computer copies Process of converting paper copies to computer copies Can be stored on disk instead of file cabinets Can be stored on disk instead of file cabinets Less expensive Less expensive More efficient More efficient

12 Types of Scanners A flatbed scanner scans one sheet at a time by laying the sheet face down on the bed of the scanner A flatbed scanner scans one sheet at a time by laying the sheet face down on the bed of the scanner Sheetfed scanner use motorized rollers to feed the document across the scanning mechanism Sheetfed scanner use motorized rollers to feed the document across the scanning mechanism Handheld scanner-portable device that requires users to pass the scanning element over the item to be scanned Handheld scanner-portable device that requires users to pass the scanning element over the item to be scanned

13 More Optical Recognition Methods Optical mark recognition (OMR)- searches for and recognizes marks such as a scantron test Optical mark recognition (OMR)- searches for and recognizes marks such as a scantron test Optical Character Recognition (OCR) – uses a wand reader to scan and process standardized letters (OCR-A) many times on things such as sales tags Optical Character Recognition (OCR) – uses a wand reader to scan and process standardized letters (OCR-A) many times on things such as sales tags

14 Some More Optical Recognition Methods Bar codes-each product has a unique product code (UPC) represented by a pattern of bars Bar codes-each product has a unique product code (UPC) represented by a pattern of bars Bar code scanner scans the bars using reflected light which is then processed to retrieve product information assigned to that bar code Bar code scanner scans the bars using reflected light which is then processed to retrieve product information assigned to that bar code Handwriting Recognition Handwriting Recognition

15 Voice Input Also called speech recognition Also called speech recognition Speech accepted through microphone and converted into binary Speech accepted through microphone and converted into binary Can be used to control the operation of the computer or to enter data through dictation Can be used to control the operation of the computer or to enter data through dictation

16 Two Types of Speech Recognition Discrete word systems-limited number of recognized words; must pause between words; very accurate Discrete word systems-limited number of recognized words; must pause between words; very accurate Continuous word systems-allows almost normal rate of speech and recognizes many more words; less accurate; comes in some of the newer application software packages such as Office XP Continuous word systems-allows almost normal rate of speech and recognizes many more words; less accurate; comes in some of the newer application software packages such as Office XP

17 Digital Cameras Image is stored on a chip in the camera Image is stored on a chip in the camera Can be viewed immediately without processing Can be viewed immediately without processing Pixels-tiny dots that compose a digital image Pixels-tiny dots that compose a digital image Resolution measures the quality of the images by the number of pixels per inch Resolution measures the quality of the images by the number of pixels per inch Many use removable flash cards for storage Many use removable flash cards for storage Images must be downloaded to a computer by connecting the camera to the computer and transferring the images Images must be downloaded to a computer by connecting the camera to the computer and transferring the images

18 Digital Video Consists of a series of still images or frames Consists of a series of still images or frames Can be captured by an inexpensive web cam Can be captured by an inexpensive web cam Video capture cards allow you to translate TV and older video into a format your computer can recognize Video capture cards allow you to translate TV and older video into a format your computer can recognize Newer video cameras actually record the video digitally which allows you to transfer video straight to the computer Newer video cameras actually record the video digitally which allows you to transfer video straight to the computer

19 Output : Information for the User Most common form is output to the screen or printer Most common form is output to the screen or printer Other types include voice, sound, graphics and even smells Other types include voice, sound, graphics and even smells

20 Screen Technology Screen is part of the monitor, the housing which also holds the electrical components Screen is part of the monitor, the housing which also holds the electrical components Screen output is known as “soft copy” because it is not permanent Screen output is known as “soft copy” because it is not permanent “Hard copy” like a printout, is tangible “Hard copy” like a printout, is tangible

21 CRT Stands for cathode ray tube Stands for cathode ray tube Most common variety of monitor Most common variety of monitor Most are color but some are monochrome, meaning they can only show one color (usually yellow or green) Most are color but some are monochrome, meaning they can only show one color (usually yellow or green) Monochrome are less expensive and used in some business environments Monochrome are less expensive and used in some business environments

22 How the CRT works Uses a technology called raster scanning Uses a technology called raster scanning An electron beam sweeps across the back of the screen covered in phosphorous that glows when hit by light An electron beam sweeps across the back of the screen covered in phosphorous that glows when hit by light It doesn’t glow very long so it must be refreshed It doesn’t glow very long so it must be refreshed The scan rate is the number of times the screen is refreshed, generally 75 times per second in a quality monitor The scan rate is the number of times the screen is refreshed, generally 75 times per second in a quality monitor

23 More on the monitor Monitor is divded into dots that are individually addressable and can be set to glow at a certain brightness and a certain color Monitor is divded into dots that are individually addressable and can be set to glow at a certain brightness and a certain color Dots are called picture elements or pixels. Dots are called picture elements or pixels.

24 Quality of a monitor Resolution on a screen is measure of screen clarity and is related to the number of pixels on the screen Resolution on a screen is measure of screen clarity and is related to the number of pixels on the screen Higher resolution = more pixels Higher resolution = more pixels Dot pitch is the space between pixels Dot pitch is the space between pixels Smaller dot pitch=sharper image Smaller dot pitch=sharper image

25 Graphics Cards The Control Unit of the CPU controls the signals sent to the monitor via the graphics card or the graphics adapter board The Control Unit of the CPU controls the signals sent to the monitor via the graphics card or the graphics adapter board The card is plugged into an expansion slot on the motherboard The card is plugged into an expansion slot on the motherboard

26 Standards for Monitors Standards were developed early to define resolutions and colors Standards were developed early to define resolutions and colors Most common standard today is SVGA (Super Video Graphics Adapter) Most common standard today is SVGA (Super Video Graphics Adapter) Supports a variety of resolutions and over 16 million colors Supports a variety of resolutions and over 16 million colors

27 Video Memory High speed form of RAM installed on the graphics card High speed form of RAM installed on the graphics card Allows more colors to be displayed on the screen at once Allows more colors to be displayed on the screen at once Separate from main memory and stores the image temporarily from the CPU Separate from main memory and stores the image temporarily from the CPU

28 Is bigger better? The size of a CRT is called the VIS, viewable image size The size of a CRT is called the VIS, viewable image size Not necessarily the spec given at the computer store. A 17” monitor may only have a 16” vis Not necessarily the spec given at the computer store. A 17” monitor may only have a 16” vis In other words, it measures across the screen diagonally and only includes the glass part In other words, it measures across the screen diagonally and only includes the glass part More expensive More expensive Takes up more space Takes up more space Easier on eyes Easier on eyes Good for graphics Good for graphics

29 Flat panel screens LCD or liquid crystal display is used commonly on small devices such as cell phones LCD or liquid crystal display is used commonly on small devices such as cell phones Getting larger and starting to appear in the desktop market Getting larger and starting to appear in the desktop market Flat panels maintain their “skininess” even as the screen grows in size unlike CRT which grow deeper as size increases Flat panels maintain their “skininess” even as the screen grows in size unlike CRT which grow deeper as size increases

30 Flat Screen Technology Active matrix-based on TFT (thin flim transistor) Active matrix-based on TFT (thin flim transistor) Passive matrix uses fewer transistors but produces a brighter image Passive matrix uses fewer transistors but produces a brighter image Gas plasma a newer more expensive technology with screen sizes up to 60 inches Gas plasma a newer more expensive technology with screen sizes up to 60 inches

31 Smart Displays Based on flat panel technology Based on flat panel technology Runs Windows CE Runs Windows CE Touch screen Touch screen Allows users to access other computers Allows users to access other computers Contains own wireless transmitter and processor Contains own wireless transmitter and processor

32 Printers Produce output on paper Produce output on paper Two modes: Two modes: Landsacape Landsacape Portrait Portrait Two types of printers: Two types of printers: Impact Impact Non-impact Non-impact

33 Impact Printers Print device actually touches or impacts paper Print device actually touches or impacts paper Line printers-fast printers usually associated with mainframes. Line printers-fast printers usually associated with mainframes. Dot-matrix printers-can print through mulitple forms Dot-matrix printers-can print through mulitple forms Overall, slower, lower quality, and don’t last as long Overall, slower, lower quality, and don’t last as long

34 Non-impact printer Print device doesn’t actually touch the paper Print device doesn’t actually touch the paper Generally more expensive Generally more expensive Higher quality graphics Higher quality graphics Generally faster than impact printers Generally faster than impact printers

35 Laser printers Non-impact printer that uses light to transfer image to paper Non-impact printer that uses light to transfer image to paper Normal print 8-10ppm Normal print 8-10ppm Network print 35-50ppm Network print 35-50ppm High end printers print up to 1,000 ppm High end printers print up to 1,000 ppm High quality, usually dpi High quality, usually dpi Color laser printers much more expensive Color laser printers much more expensive

36 Inkjet Printers Spray ink onto page Spray ink onto page Slower than laser Slower than laser Generally lower quality Generally lower quality However, affordable color printing at pretty good quality However, affordable color printing at pretty good quality Three colors combine to make all colors Three colors combine to make all colors With inkjet and laser, can result in some colors not true color of image With inkjet and laser, can result in some colors not true color of image

37 Voice Output Speech synthesis allows computer to produce speech as output Speech synthesis allows computer to produce speech as output Voice synthesizers, aka voice output devices or audio response units transfer data in storage to recognizable speech Voice synthesizers, aka voice output devices or audio response units transfer data in storage to recognizable speech

38 Two types of synthesis Synthesis by analysis-replays recorded human speech as needed. Sounds natural but pace is sometimes awkward Synthesis by analysis-replays recorded human speech as needed. Sounds natural but pace is sometimes awkward Synthesis by rule-creates artificial speech that does not sound like a real human Synthesis by rule-creates artificial speech that does not sound like a real human

39 Music output MIDI-Musical Instrument Digital Interface MIDI-Musical Instrument Digital Interface Allows musical instruments and synthesizers to be connected to computer Allows musical instruments and synthesizers to be connected to computer Shares data with computer regarding pitch, length of notes, volume and other musical attributes Shares data with computer regarding pitch, length of notes, volume and other musical attributes

40 Microform Computer Output Microform produces small images on microfiche or microfilm Computer Output Microform produces small images on microfiche or microfilm Microfilm is a roll or images Microfilm is a roll or images Microfiche more resembles a card Microfiche more resembles a card Can store up to 1,000 images per roll or fiche Can store up to 1,000 images per roll or fiche

41 Combining Input and Output Terminal-combines input and output, usually monitor and keyboard Terminal-combines input and output, usually monitor and keyboard Dumb terminal-has no processing abilities and just sends data back and forth to another computer Dumb terminal-has no processing abilities and just sends data back and forth to another computer Intelligent terminal-keyboard, monitor, memory and processor that can perform its own processing Intelligent terminal-keyboard, monitor, memory and processor that can perform its own processing POS or point of sale terminal used mainly in retail markets. For example, in grocery store bar code scanner with display monitor, receipt printer POS or point of sale terminal used mainly in retail markets. For example, in grocery store bar code scanner with display monitor, receipt printer

42 Computer Graphics Business graphics-charts, graphs, and maps Business graphics-charts, graphs, and maps Allow visual presentation of data Allow visual presentation of data Easy to spot trends and make decisions Easy to spot trends and make decisions

43 Video Graphics Graphics associated with moving images Graphics associated with moving images Animations Animations Special Effects Special Effects Video games Video games

44 CAD/CAM/CIM Computer Aided Design Computer Aided Design Computer Aided Manufacturing Computer Aided Manufacturing Creates two and three dimensional models Creates two and three dimensional models Designs products and allows for theoretical testing by software Designs products and allows for theoretical testing by software CAM controls production process CAM controls production process Computer Integrated Manufacturing is the integration of both CAD and CAM Computer Integrated Manufacturing is the integration of both CAD and CAM


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