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Theories of International Trade and Investment McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 11/e Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights.

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Presentation on theme: "Theories of International Trade and Investment McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 11/e Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Theories of International Trade and Investment McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 11/e Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. chapter three

3 3-3 Learning Objectives  Explain the theories that attempt to explain why certain goods are traded internationally  Discuss the arguments for imposing trade restrictions  Explain two basic kinds of import restrictions: tariff and nontariff trade barriers

4 3-4 Learning Objectives  Appreciate the relevance of changing status of tariff and nontariff barriers to managers  Explain some of the theories of foreign direct investment

5 3-5 International Trade Theory Mercantilism –Economic philosophy based on belief that (1) a nation’s wealth depends on accumulated treasure, usually gold, and (2) to increase wealth, government policies should promote exports and discourage imports

6 3-6 Theory of Absolute Advantage Absolute advantage –Theory that a nation has absolute advantage when it can produce a larger amount of a good or service for the same amount of inputs as can another country or –When it can produce the same amount of a good or service using fewer inputs than could another country

7 3-7 Absolute Advantage Each Country Specializes Example

8 3-8 Absolute Advantage Terms of Trade (Ratio of International Prices) Gains from Specialization and Trade

9 3-9 Theory of Comparative Advantage Comparative Advantage –A nation having absolute disadvantages in the production of two goods with respect to another nation has a comparative or relative advantage in the production of the good in which its absolute disadvantage is less

10 3-10 Theory of Comparative Advantage Example Each Country Specializes

11 3-11 Comparative Advantage Terms of Trade – at a rate of ¾ bolt of cloth for 1 ton of soybeans Terms of Trade – at a rate of 1 bolt of cloth for 1 ton of soybeans Gains from Specialization and Trade

12 3-12 Heckscher-Ohlin Theory of Factor Endowment Factor Endowment –Heckscher-Ohlin theory that countries export products requiring large amounts of their abundant factors of production and import products requiring large amounts of their scarce factors of production –Remember that a factor of production is land, labor, capital, and raw materials

13 3-13 Heckscher-Ohlin Theory of Factor Endowment Leontief Paradox Some countries like the United States, one of the most capital-intensive countries in the world, were not following the factor endowment theory and were like the US exporting relatively labor-intensive products in exchange for relatively capital-intensive products

14 3-14 How Can Money Change The Direction of Trade? Exchange Rate – the price of one currency stated in terms of another currency The exchange rate can change: If the other country’s currency is depreciated, then we have more trouble selling to them as our products are relatively more expensive (relative to what they were before or relative to what the product costs in the rest of the world). If the other country’s currency is appreciated, then our goods are relatively cheaper and they can buy more.

15 3-15 How Can Money Change The Direction of Trade? Influences of Exchange Rate –Currency devaluation The lowering of a currency’s price in terms of other currencies

16 3-16 Some Newer Explanations For The Direction Of Trade Linder Theory of Overlapping Demand –Customers’ tastes are strongly affected by income levels; therefore a nation’s income per capita level determines the kinds of goods they will demand

17 3-17 Some Newer Explanations For The Direction Of Trade International Product Life Cycle (IPLC) –Explains why a product that begins as export eventually becomes import (figure 3.2) U.S. exports Foreign production begins Foreign competition in export market Import competition in the United States

18 3-18 Figure 3.2 International Product Life Cycle

19 3-19 Some Newer Explanations For The Direction Of Trade Economies of Scale and Experience Curve –As a plant gets larger and output increase, the average cost of producing each unit of output decreases –As firms produce more products, they learn ways to improve production efficiency

20 3-20 Some Newer Explanations For The Direction Of Trade Imperfect Competition –Economies of scale with the existence of differentiated products--Paul Krugman First-Mover Theory –Pattern of trade in goods subject to scale economies may be determined by historical factors

21 3-21 Trade Restrictions: Arguments For National Defense Sanctions to Punish Offending Nations Protect Infant (or Dying) Industry Protect Domestic Jobs from Cheap Foreign Labor Scientific Tariff or Fair Competition

22 3-22 Trade Restrictions Retaliation –Dumping: selling a product abroad for less than the cost of production, the price in the home market, or the price to third countries Social dumping Environmental dumping Financial services dumping Cultural dumping Tax dumping

23 3-23 Trade Restrictions –Subsidies: Financial contributions, provided directly or indirectly by a government, which confer a benefit; include grants, preferential tax treatment, and government assumption of normal business expenses (figure 3.4) –Countervailing duties: Additional import taxes levied on imports that have benefited from export subsidies

24 3-24 Tariff Barriers Tariff –Taxes on imported goods for the purpose of raising their price to reduce competition for local producers or stimulate local production Ad Valorem Duty –An import duty levied as a percentage of the invoice value of imported goods Specific Duty –A fixed sum levied on a physical unit of an imported good

25 3-25 Tariff Barriers Compound Duty –A combination of specific and ad valorem duties Official Prices Variable Levy –An import duty set at the difference between world market prices and local government-supported prices (World market prices lower so they are taxed enough to make them level with local prices) Lower Duty for more local Input

26 3-26 Nontariff Barriers Nontariff barriers (NTBs) –All forms of discrimination against imports other than import duties Quantitative –Quotas: numerical limits placed on specific classes of imports –Voluntary export restraints (VERs): Export quotas imposed by exporting nation

27 3-27 Nontariff Barriers Orderly Marketing Arrangements –Formal agreements between exporting and importing countries that stipulate the import or export quotas each nation will have for a good Nonquantitative Nontariff Barriers –Direct government participation in trade –Customs and other administrative procedures –Standards

28 3-28 International Investment Theories Monopolistic Advantage Theory Theory that FDI is made by firms in oligopolistic industries possessing technical and other advantages over indigenous firms Product and Factor Market Imperfections Superior knowledge leads to differentiated products, and they lead to firm control on price and advantage over indigenous firm (Hymer and Caves) Financial Factors Imperfections in the foreign exchange markets (Aliber) International Product Life Cycle

29 3-29 International Investment Theories Follow The Leader Cross Investment –Foreign direct investment by oligopolistic firms in each other’s home countries as a defense measure

30 3-30 International Investment Theories Dynamic Capabilities –Theory that for a firm to successfully invest overseas, it must have ownership of unique knowledge or resources and the ability to dynamically create and exploit these capabilities Dunning’s Eclectic Theory Of International Production –Theory that for a firm to invest overseas, it must have three kinds of advantages: ownership- specific, internalization, and location-specific


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