Presentation on theme: "Relevant Costs and Benefits"— Presentation transcript:
1Relevant Costs and Benefits Decision making:Relevant Costs and Benefits
2Let’s take a look at a decision faced by many businesses. Make versus BuyLet’s take a look at a decision faced by many businesses.We need a particular component for our manufacturing process. Do you think we should make or buy this particular item?W
3Make or BuyHan Products manufactures 30,000 units of part S-6 each year for use on its production line. At this level of activity, the cost per unit for part S-6 is as follows:Direct materials $3.60Direct laborVariable manufacturing overheadFixed manufacturing overhead Total cost per part $25.00
4Make or Buy (continued) An outside supplier has offered to sell 30,000 units of part S-6 each year to Han Products for $21 per part. If Han Products accepts this offer, the facilities now being used to manufacture part S-6 could be rented to another company at an annual rental of $80,000. However, Han Products has determined that two-thirds of the fixed manufacturing overhead being applied to part S-6 would continue even if part S-6 were purchased from the outside supplier.Prepare computations showing how much profits will increase or decrease if the outside supplier’s offer is accepted.
5Analysis of Special Pricing Decisions Let’s take a look at another decision faced by many businesses:Another firm has offered to pay us $10 for a product that normally sells for $25. Do you think we should accept this special order?W
6Accept/Reject Special Orders Polaski Company manufactures and sells a single product called a Ret. Operating at capacity, the company can produce and sell 30,000 Rets per year. Costs associated with this level of production and sales are given below:The Rets normally sell for $50 each. Fixed manufacturing overhead is constant at $270,000 per year within the range of 25,000 through 30,000 Rets per year.UnitTotalDirect materials$15$450,000Direct labor8240,000Variable manufacturing overhead390,000Fixed manufacturing overhead9270,000Variable selling expense4120,000Fixed selling expense6180,000Total cost$45$1,350,000
7Accept/Reject Special Orders (continued) Assume that due to a recession, Polaski Company expects to sell only 25,000 Rets through regular channels next year. A large retail chain has offered to purchase 5,000 Rets if Polaski is willing to accept a 16% discount off the regular price. There would be no sales commissions on this order; thus, variable selling expenses would be slashed by 75%.However, Polaski Company would have to purchase a special machine to engrave the retail chain’s name on the 5,000 units. This machine would cost $10,000. Polaski Company has no assurance that the retail chain will purchase additional units in the future. Determine the impact on profits next year if this special order is accepted.
8Accept/Reject Special Orders (continued) Refer to the original data. Assume again that Polaski Company expects to sell only 25,000 Rets through regular channels next year. The U.S. Army would like to make a one-time-only purchase of 5,000 Rets. The Army would pay a fixed fee of $1.80 per Ret, and it would reimburse Polaski Company for all costs of production (variable and fixed) associated with the units. Because the army would pick up the Rets with its own trucks, there would be no variable selling expenses associated with this order.If Polaski Company accepts the order, by how much will profits increase or decrease for the year?
9Accept/Reject Special Orders (continued) Assume the same situation as that described in the previous slide, except that the company expects to sell 30,000 Rets through the regular channels next year. Thus, accepting the U.S. Army’s order would require giving up regular sales of 5,000 Rets.If the Army’s order is accepted, by how much will profits increase or decrease from what they would be if the 5,000 Rets were sold through regular channels?
10Utilizing a Constrained Resource Let’s take a look at another decision faced by many businesses:One of our machines is a constraint in the operation. What products should we produce on this machine?W
11Scarce Resource Constraint A company has two products: a plain cellular phone and a fancier cellular phone with many special features:Plain FancyPhone PhoneSelling price $ $ 120Variable costsContribution margin $ $ 36Contribution-margin ratio % %
12Scarce Resource Constraint Which product is more profitable?On which should the firm spend its resources?It depends.If sales are restricted by demand for only a limited number of phones, fancy phones are more profitable.
13Scarce Resource Constraint Suppose annual demand for phones of both types is more than the company can produce in the next year.Only 10,000 hours of capacity are availableIf in one hour plant workers can make either three plain phones or one fancy phone, which phone is more profitable?
14Scarce Resource Constraint Plain FancyPhone Phone1. Units per hour2. Contribution margin per unit $ $ 36Contribution margin per hourTotal contribution for10,000 hours
15Constrained Resources Westford Company produces three products, A110, B382, and C657. Unit data for the three products follows:ProductA110B382C657Selling Price$84$56$70Variable CostsDirect materials24159Labor and other costs282740Quantity of Bistide per unit8 lb.5 lb.3 lb.
16Constrained Resources (continued) All three products use the same direct material, Bistide. The demand for the products far exceeds the direct materials available to produce the products. Bistide costs $3 per pound and a maximum of 5,000 pounds is available each month. Westford must produce a minimum of 200 units of each product.How many units of product A110, B832, and C657 should Westford produce?What is the maximum amount Westford would be willing to pay for another 1,000 pounds of Bistide?
17Analysis of Equipment Replacement Decisions Let’s take a look at another decision faced by many businesses:Should we replace a machine with a newer and more efficient one?W
18Equipment Replacement Decision A manager at White Co. wants to replace an old machine with a new, more efficient machine:
19Should the manager purchase the new machine? Equipment Replacement DecisionWhite’s sales are $200,000 per yearFixed expenses, other than depreciation, are $70,000 per yearShould the manager purchase the new machine?
20Another Equipment Replacement Decision Toledo Company is considering replacing a metal-cutting machine with a newer model. The new machine is more efficient than the old machine, but it has a shorter life. Revenues from aircraft parts ($1.1 million per year) will be unaffected by the replacement decision. Here’s the data on the existing (old) machine and the replacement (new) machine:
21Equipment Replacement Decision (cont.) Old MachineNew MachineOriginal Cost$1,000,000$600,000Useful Life5 years2 yearsCurrent age3 years0 yearsRemaining useful lifeAccumulated DepreciationNot acquired yetBook Value$400,000Current disposal value (in cash)$40,000Terminal disposal value (in cash 2 years from now)$0Annual operating costs (maintenance, energy, repairs, coolants, and so on)$800,000$460,000
22Equipment Replacement Decision (cont.) Toledo Corporation uses straight-line depreciation. To focus on relevance, we ignore time value of money and income taxes.Should Toledo replace its old machine?
23Sell or Process Further Let’s take a look at another decision faced by many businesses:We have a joint process in our manufacturing operation. How should we decide whether to sell a joint product as is, or process it further?W
24Joint Products Joint Costs Separable Split-Off Product Point Costs SeparateProcessingFinalSaleOilCommonProductionProcessJointInputFinalSaleGasolineSeparateProcessingFinalSaleChemicalsSeparableProductCostsSplit-OffPoint
25Sell-or-Process Further Decisions In Sell-or-Process Further decisions, joint costs are irrelevant since they are “sunk” costs at the decision pointDecision should be based on whether the incremental revenue due to further processing is greater/less than the separable costs for the same
26Sell or Process Further Wexpro, Inc., produces several products from processing 1 ton of clypton, a rare mineral. Material and processing costs total $60,000 per ton, one-fourth of which is allocated to product X15. Seven thousand units of product X15 are produced from each ton of clypton. The units can either be sold at the split-off point for $9 each, or processed further at a total cost of $9,500 and then sold for $12 each.Should product X15 be processed further or sold at the split-off point?
27Joint Products - Practice The wood spirits company produces two products, turpentine and methanol, by a joint process.Joint costs are $120,000 per batch of output. Each batch totals 10,000 gallons, 25% methanol and 75% turpentine.At split-off, methanol sells for $21/gallon and turpentine sells for $14/ gallon.
28Joint Products - Practice (continued) The company has discovered an new process by which the methanol can be made into a pleasant-tasting beverage.The selling price for this beverage would be $40 per gallon. The additional processing would cost $12 per gallon s and the company would have to pay excise taxes of 20% on the selling price.Should the company undertake further processing?