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Chapter 42 Antifungal Drugs Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 42 Antifungal Drugs Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 42 Antifungal Drugs Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

2  Very large and diverse group of microorganisms, including yeasts and molds  Fungal infections also known as mycoses  Some fungi are part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestines, and vagina Fungi 2Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

3  Single-cell fungi  Reproduce by budding  Can be used for  Baking  Alcoholic beverages Yeasts 3Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4  Multicellular  Characterized by long, branching filaments called hyphae Molds 4Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

5  Four general types  Cutaneous  Subcutaneous  Superficial  Systemic Can be life threatening Usually occur in immunocompromised host Mycotic Infections 5Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6  Candida albicans  May follow antibiotic therapy, antineoplastics, or immunosuppressants (corticosteroids)  May result in overgrowth and systemic infections  Growth in the mouth is called thrush or oral candidiasis  Common in newborn infants and immunocompromised patients Mycotic Infections (cont’d) 6Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

7  Vaginal candidiasis  Yeast infection  Pregnancy, women with diabetes mellitus, women taking oral contraceptives Mycotic Infections (cont’d) 7Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8 Classroom Response Question A patient has developed an aspergillosis infection. Which tissue does the aspergillosis affect? A.Skin B.Nails C.Blood D.Lungs 8Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

9  Drugs used to treat infections caused by fungi  Systemic  amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole, voriconazole, terbinafine  Topical  nystatin, terbinafine Antifungal Drugs 9Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

10  Broken down into major groups based on their chemical structure:  Polyenes: amphotericin B and nystatin  Imidazoles: ketoconazole  Triazoles: fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole  Echinocandins: caspofungin, micafungin  Drugs that are listed individually, not by chemical structure: griseofulvin, flucytosine Antifungal Drugs (cont’d) 10Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

11  flucytosine  Also known as 5-fluorocytosine (antimetabolite)  Taken up by fungal cells and interferes with DNA synthesis  Result: fungal cell death  Older drug; newer drugs are more commonly used Mechanism of Action 11Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

12  griseofulvin  Disrupts cell division  Result: inhibited fungal mitosis (cell division)  Older drug; newer drugs are more commonly used Mechanism of Action (cont’d) 12Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

13  Polyenes: amphotericin B and nystatin  Bind to sterols in cell membrane lining  Result: fungal cell death  Do not bind to human cell membranes or kill human cells Mechanism of Action (cont’d) 13Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

14  Imidazoles and triazoles: ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole  Inhibit fungal cell cytochrome P-450 enzymes, resulting in cell membrane leaking  Result: altered cellular metabolism and fungal cell death Mechanism of Action (cont’d) 14Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

15  Echinocandins: capsofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin  Prevent the synthesis of glucans (essential components of fungal cell walls)  Result: fungal cell death Mechanism of Action (cont’d) 15Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

16  Systemic and topical fungal infections  Drug of choice for the treatment of many severe systemic fungal infections is amphotericin B  Choice of drug depends on type and location of infection Indications 16Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

17 Classroom Response Question A patient is diagnosed with onychomycosis. The nurse anticipates use of which medication for the treatment of this condition? A.terbinafine (Lamisil) B.voriconazole (Vfend) C.fluconazole (Diflucan) D.amphotericin B (Amphocin, Fungizone) 17Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

18 Adverse Effects: Amphotericin B  Cardiac dysrhythmias  Neurotoxicity; tinnitus; visual disturbances; hand or feet numbness, tingling, or pain; convulsions  Renal toxicity, potassium loss, hypomagnesemia  Pulmonary infiltrates  Fever, chills, headache, nausea, occasional hypotension, gastrointestinal upset, anemia 18Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

19 Classroom Response Question A patient is receiving amphotericin B lipid complex. The nurse knows that an advantage of the lipid formulations of this drug is that they A.have a lower cost. B.can be administered quickly. C.take longer to be absorbed. D.cause fewer adverse effects. 19Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

20  fluconazole  Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain,  Increased liver enzymes  Use with caution in patients with renal and liver dysfunction  nystatin  Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea, rash Antifungal Drugs: Adverse Effects 20Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

21  Liver failure  Renal failure  Porphyria (griseofulvin)  Drug allergy Antifungal Drugs: Contraindications 21Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

22  Many antifungal drugs are metabolized by the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system  Coadministration of two drugs that are metabolized by this system may result in competition for these enzymes, and thus higher levels of one of the drugs Antifungal Drugs: Interactions 22Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

23  Before beginning therapy, assess for hypersensitivity, possible contraindications, and conditions that require cautious use  Obtain baseline VS, CBC, liver and renal function studies, and ECG  Assess for other medications used (prescribed and over-the-counter) to avoid drug interactions Nursing Implications 23Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

24  Follow manufacturer’s directions carefully for reconstitution and administration  Monitor vital signs of patients receiving IV infusions every 15 to 30 minutes  During IV infusions, monitor I&O to identify adverse effects Nursing Implications (cont’d) 24Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

25 Classroom Response Question Fifteen minutes after an infusion of amphotericin B was started, the patient begins to complain of fever, chills, muscle pain, and nausea. His heart rate has increased slightly, but his blood pressure is down to 100/68. What is the nurse’s priority? A.Notify the prescriber immediately. B.Recognize an impending anaphylactic reaction and stop the infusion. C.Assess for other symptoms of this expected infusion- related reaction. D.Slow the infusion to reduce these adverse effects. 25Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

26  amphotericin B  To reduce the severity of the infusion-related reactions, pretreatment with an antipyretic (acetaminophen), antihistamines, antiemetics, and corticosteroids may be given  Use IV infusion pumps and the most distal veins possible Nursing Implications (cont’d) 26Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

27  Some oral forms should be given with meals to decrease GI upset; others require an empty stomach—be sure to check Nursing Implications (cont’d) 27Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

28 Classroom Response Question A patient is taking nystatin (Mycostatin) in an oral troche form for oral candidiasis. Which instruction is correct? A.Allow the troche to dissolve slowly in the mouth. B.Swish the medication in the mouth and then swallow it. C.Chew the troche thoroughly to activate the medication. D.Swallow the troche whole without chewing. 28Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

29  Nystatin given as an oral lozenge or troche should be slowly and completely dissolved in the mouth (not chewed or swallowed whole)  Nystatin suspension should be swished thoroughly in the mouth as long as possible before swallowing Nursing Implications (cont’d) 29Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

30  Monitor for therapeutic effects  Easing of symptoms of infection  Improved energy levels  Normal vital signs, including temperature  Monitor carefully for adverse effects Nursing Implications (cont’d) 30Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.


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