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Dr. Prasad Modak Executive President Environmental Management Centre LLP, India 3Rs – International Perspective.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Prasad Modak Executive President Environmental Management Centre LLP, India 3Rs – International Perspective."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Prasad Modak Executive President Environmental Management Centre LLP, India 3Rs – International Perspective

2 Mulund, Mumbai Dumping Ground 2000

3 Mulund, Mumbai Dumping Ground 2012

4 Reduce !! Taming consumption Twenty top cities in India accounted for 60% of the surplus income. Annual household income growth in these 20 cities averaged at 11.2% between 2005-08. Spending gets a 52% boost as househ olds move into the middle class Requires major awareness programme s, Life cycle considerations, Green P ublic Procurement Picture source:


6 In 2005, 20 to 50 million tonnes of e-waste were generated worldwide By 2020, e-waste from used computers in emerging economies like South Africa, China and India will ha ve increased by 200-500% over 2007 levels E-wastes contain metals such as mercury, cadmium and lead, that may leach into the environment and pose a health hazard to human beings, unless handled with care. Informal sector workers are engaged in dismantling used electrical and electronic equipment in order to recover metals, plastics and other materials for recycling, often without proper protection, exposing them to severe health risks Newer Waste Streams – E-Waste Source: UNEP (2005). E-waste, the hidden side of IT equipment’s manufacturing and use, Environmental Alert Bulletin,

7 About 10-15 % of waste generat ed in developed countries is due to construction and demolition a ctivity Discarded vehicles generated in Germany, UK, France, Spain and Italy are responsible for approxi mately 7-5 % of waste generate d in the EU-25. Newer Waste Streams – C&D and EoLV Source: Bournay E. (2006). Vital waste graphic 2, Volume 2, Basel Convention, UNEP and GRID- Arendal, Second edition, waste2/VWG2_p32and33.pdf waste2/VWG2_p32and33.pdf Eurostat (2010). End-of-life vehicles (ELVs), Reuse and Recovery rate, last updated on 16.04.2010,

8 Wastes Not Being Viewed as “Resources” Need for fundamental change in our mindset and attitudes Link between “waste” and “resource” is not well understood Source: Adapted from ADB and IGES (2008). Toward Resource-Efficient Economics in Asia and the Pacific: Reduce Reuse Recycle, Asian Development Bank, Manila Type of waste Recycled products Recycling potential BiomassCompostsFuture of compost depends on its environmental and agronomic quality and the dynamism of its market. Paper and cardboardRecovered paper (recycled paper) Increasing demand in Asia, particularly in PRC. PlasticsRecovered plasticsIncreasingly stringent regulations and growing demand for recovered plastics in Asia, favoring development and internationalization of this market. Cost of collection system and volatile prices are limiting factors. Ferrous Metals SteelIn 2004, world production of scrap metal rose to 450Mt and consumption reached 405.5Mt. Can be recovered from MSW, construction waste, etc. E-wastesRecoverable materials Estimated that 10million computers contain 135,000 metric tons of recoverable materials, such as base metals, silicon, glass, plastic, and precious metals.

9 Wastes Not Being Viewed as “Resources” Need for fundamental change in our mindset and attitudes Valuable Metals That Could be Recovered from a Mobile Phone Source: Quantity of Non-ferrous Metals Included in One Mobile Phone (Unit: g) Gold0.028 Silver0.189 Copper13.71 Palladium0.014 Source:

10 Example of effective utilization of waste and byproduct leveraging a cement factory Automobile industry Steel industry Paper industry Electricity industry Waste disposal industry Refining industry Housing industry Local government Food industry Construction industry Petroleum industry Chemical industry Printing industry Agriculture Waste tire, molding sand Cement factory Paint residue Blast-furnace slag, steelmaking slag Fly ash Paper-making sludge, incineration ash Coal ash, flue-gas gypsum Incineration ash, waste plastic Sewage sludge, water purification sludge Municipal waste incineration ash Distilled liquor residue, waste glass Meat and bone meal, plastic Soil put out in construction Construction and demolition waste Waste oil, waste catalyst Sludge Waste solvent, waste catalyst Waste plastic Nonferrous slag Waste tatami mat Incineration ash, waste solvent Waste plastic Source: Adapted from Sameshima (2009), presented at the Inaugural Meeting of the Regional 3R Forum in Asia in November 2009 in Tokyo.

11 Wastes Not Being Viewed as “Resources” Need for fundamental change in our mindset and attitudes Resource efficiency and circular economy The Closed Loop Economy By reducing production of wastes, and by maximising the use of reusable and recyclable materials, a city can achieve greater resource efficiency Source: ADB and IGES (2008). Toward Resource-Efficient Economics in Asia and the Pacific: Reduce Reuse Recycle. Asian Development Bank, Manila Closed-Loop Economy Recycle Based Society Sound Material-Cycle Society Green Growth and Circular Economy Closed-Loop Economy Recycle Based Society Sound Material-Cycle Society Green Growth and Circular Economy

12 PPP Model for Centralized Community Based Composting in Dhaka

13 Methane Capture in Gorai Dump, Mumbai Closure of 25-year-old dumping ground and development of landfill gas recovery at the Gorai creek in Borivli has earned the BMC, the city authority of Mumbai, India US$ 5.7 million by trading of an estimated 31,000 CERs a year The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has been purchasing the carbon credits from the civic body as per market prices when the trading takes place City’s Gorai dumping ground closure and landfill gas project can be seen as a forerunner in dumpsite methane capture projects. Other Related Examples from the World

14 Wongpanich Private Waste Recycling, Thailand: South- South TT ● Recognized as a model for recycling business in Thailand and neighboring countries ● Provides important benefits such as − poverty reduction − create job opportunities − market value for waste − educate people − and increase awareness within community Wongpanich Waste Recycling Factory, Thailand Factory Building Storage of Separated & Cleaned Plastic Containers Recyclable transportation

15 Wongpanich Low Cost Technology Plastic Scrap Management Zinc/Zinc Can Management

16 Glass Bottle/Glass scrap Management Wongpanich Low Cost Technology Aluminum Management

17 Resource recovery – recycling rates Minimu m % Maximu m % Average % High- income 3072 54 Middle- income 639 22 Low- income 685 27

18 Resource recovery - formal vs informal Average % Formal % Informal % High- income 54 0 Middle- income 22 8 13 Low- income 27 3 24

19 Quezon City, Philippines Started with ‘Linis Ganda’  Linkages across supply chain  Recognition & respectability  uniforms, ID, access  politically connected  Organise co-operatives  Facilitate affordable credit Photo credits: Embassy of Japan in the Philippines; Government of the Philippines, 2006 YearTotalIWBs 1997 6% 4% 200625%16% 200937%24% 10 year increase in recycling

20 Muncipality supports informal collectors of recyclables in Lima, Peru

21 PPPs in Reuse, Recycling, Composting 2010 City of Diadema, Brazil contracts the informal sector to collect recyclables Brazilian President Lula shows his support to the informal sector and enco urages decision makers t o recognise their value a nd use their professional expertise (2005)

22 Weigh bridge Sorting Inert Storage Organic storage Bio- methanation or Composting plants Material Recovery Centre Innovation centre Street lights Waste Sorting Centres Gardens Methane gas for street lights and to fuel transport vehicles Processed materials for users Compost to gardens Waste Sorting Centre Waste Generators/ Decentralized Integrated Eco-system

23 Reduce Reuse Recycle Energy Recovery Safe Treatment Zero Waste Zero Waste CO 2 Reduction CO 2 Reduction Reduce → Reuse → Recycle → Recovery CO2 emission reduction and ‘Zero Waste’ by converting 3R to 4R Energy Environment Economy Environment A new paradigm covering energy and employment along with economy and the environment Employ 4R Policy & 4E Goal Economy 9

24 환경부 자원순환국 Online waste disposal verification system (Allbaro) Asbestos disposal measures Follow-up management performance deposit for waste disposal facility Volume based waste fee system Reduce the use of disposable items and packaging Waste charge system Promote the recycling of construction wastes and used metal scrap EPR system(24 items) Eco-Assurance system for WEEE and vehicles Nature Materials Natural Resources Recyclable Resources Recyclable Resources WtE and biomass Eco-energy complex towns Low-carbon green villages ① Energy-efficient Production, Distribution, Consumption ① Energy-efficient Production, Distribution, Consumption ④ Advanced treatment for pollution prevention ④ Advanced treatment for pollution prevention ③ Energy recovery from waste resources ③ Energy recovery from waste resources ② Material recycling to reduce raw materials ② Material recycling to reduce raw materials Waste 10

25 Sudokwon Eco-Energy Complex Town Sludge-to-Solid Fuel (2,700ton/day) Organic Waste-to-Biogas (1,500ton/day) Construction Waste-to-Fuel (4,000ton/day) Testing complex Other energy plants Combustible WtE plant (2,000ton/day) RDF plant (200ton/day, Apr. 2010) Sludge solidification plant (1,000ton/day, Dec. 2008) RDF-dedicated Boiler (600ton/day) 21

26 Landfill Gas Recovery Project “GHG Reduction Effect” “Oil Substitution Effect” “Economic Benefits” 22

27 Discussion on each task via forum(2010) - (Topic) the influence of master plan on resource recirculation and correlation to the relevant plans - Developing the new index for improving resource recirculation - Optimizing measures on the investment in national waste treatment facilities - Maintaining the proper level of material recycling and waste to energy Direction for master plan on national resource recirculation Set new targets Impose sector-specific roles and tasks Implementation and assessment ○ Resources productivity ○ Resources recirculation ratio ○ Reduction of ultimate disposal ○ Establish sector-specific roles and tasks ○ Sector-specific policy task at the stage of production, transaction, consumption, and disposal ○ Reduce the ultimate volume of disposal and set recycling goals for individual industry and product ○ Create yearly implementation plans, execute and evaluate the achievements Future Plan The 1st National Resource Recirculation Master Plan (2011~2015) 25

28 Urban Metabolism and Flows


30 source: Mathews et al. (2000) The Weight of Nations: material outflows from industrial economies. World Resources Institute, Washington DC: pg. 14 CITIES


32 Policy making decision tool: design tool for community leaders, city officials and others

33 Key Points Decentralized & Participatory Solutions 3R Policy Framework Business Models Waste-Resource Flows - Metabolism


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