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PC Maintenance: Preparing for A+ Certification Chapter 4: The Motherboard.

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Presentation on theme: "PC Maintenance: Preparing for A+ Certification Chapter 4: The Motherboard."— Presentation transcript:

1 PC Maintenance: Preparing for A+ Certification Chapter 4: The Motherboard

2 Chapter 4 Objectives Understand the processing subsystem Understand the processing subsystem Identify expansion buses and slots Identify expansion buses and slots Differentiate between motherboard form factors and feature sets Differentiate between motherboard form factors and feature sets Identify parts of a motherboard Identify parts of a motherboard Change the battery in a motherboard Change the battery in a motherboard Troubleshoot motherboard problems Troubleshoot motherboard problems

3 Processing Subsystem Motherboard Motherboard CPU CPU Memory Memory Operating system Operating system

4 How a Motherboard Works Buses Buses Address bus Address bus System bus System bus Expansion buses Expansion buses Chips Chips Chipset Chipset CPU CPU RAM RAM

5 Buses Address bus: between CPU and MCC Address bus: between CPU and MCC MCC: Memory controller chip MCC: Memory controller chip Interfaces with RAM Interfaces with RAM System bus: between CPU and chipset System bus: between CPU and chipset Chipset: controller chip(s) on motherboard Chipset: controller chip(s) on motherboard Expansion buses: between chipset and expansion slots Expansion buses: between chipset and expansion slots

6 Expansion Buses AGP: Fastest, for video only AGP: Fastest, for video only 32-bit, 66MHz up to 533MHz 32-bit, 66MHz up to 533MHz PCI: Fast, general purpose PCI: Fast, general purpose 32-bit, 33MHz 32-bit, 33MHz New PCIe (PCI Express) is faster, will replace AGP soon New PCIe (PCI Express) is faster, will replace AGP soon ISA: Slow, general purpose ISA: Slow, general purpose 16-bit, 8MHz 16-bit, 8MHz

7 Expansion Slots AGP ISA PCI

8 Motherboard Chipsets North/South Bridge North/South Bridge Older design Older design Uses PCI bus to connect North (faster) and South (slower) Uses PCI bus to connect North (faster) and South (slower) Hub Hub Newer design Newer design PCI bus is separate, not used for north/south traffic PCI bus is separate, not used for north/south traffic Newer designs do not include ISA support Newer designs do not include ISA support

9 Jumpers Two pins Two pins When cap is placed over them, they are bridged and electrical circuit is created When cap is placed over them, they are bridged and electrical circuit is created

10 Switches Tiny on/off switch that opens/closes electrical circuit Tiny on/off switch that opens/closes electrical circuit More expensive to manufacture than jumper More expensive to manufacture than jumper

11 Selecting a Motherboard Form Factor Form Factor Expansion Slots Expansion Slots RAM slots RAM slots CPU Slot or Socket CPU Slot or Socket Built-in components (sound, video, network) Built-in components (sound, video, network) I/O ports (USB, FireWire, serial, parallel, PS/2 mouse) I/O ports (USB, FireWire, serial, parallel, PS/2 mouse)

12 AT Motherboard Expansion slots parallel to wide edge Expansion slots parallel to wide edge Large (AT-style) keyboard connector Large (AT-style) keyboard connector AT-style power supply connector AT-style power supply connector Ports connect to case via small ribbon cables Large (AT- style) keyboard connector AT-style power connector Expansion slots parallel to wide edge

13 ATX Motherboard ATX-style power supply connector Ports built into side of board Expansion slots parallel to narrow edge Small (PS/2) style keyboard connector

14 Motherboard Expansion Slots ISA: 16-bit, 8MHz ISA: 16-bit, 8MHz Very old technology Very old technology Slots are usually black Slots are usually black Useful for compatibility with old devices Useful for compatibility with old devices

15 Motherboard Expansion Slots PCI: 32-bit, 33MHz PCI: 32-bit, 33MHz General-purpose expansion slots General-purpose expansion slots Slots are usually white Slots are usually white Useful for a variety of cards including NICs, modems, sound cards Useful for a variety of cards including NICs, modems, sound cards

16 Motherboard Expansion Slots AGP: 32-bit, 66MHz to 533MHz AGP: 32-bit, 66MHz to 533MHz Only one per motherboard in most cases Only one per motherboard in most cases Slots are usually brown Slots are usually brown High speed for video card High speed for video card “X” ratings of speed, from 1X (66MHz) to 8X (533MHz) “X” ratings of speed, from 1X (66MHz) to 8X (533MHz)

17 CPU Slot or Socket Sockets for PGA CPUs Sockets for PGA CPUs Many styles of sockets with different number and arrangement of pins Many styles of sockets with different number and arrangement of pins

18 CPU Slot or Socket Slots for cartridge-type (SECC) CPUs Slots for cartridge-type (SECC) CPUs SECC Slot 1, Slot 2, Slot A SECC Slot 1, Slot 2, Slot A

19 Built-in Components Sound Sound Network Network Video Video Modem Modem

20 Battery Why a battery? Why a battery? CMOS CMOS Real-time clock Real-time clock Styles of battery Styles of battery Barrel Barrel Coin Coin

21 I/O Ports in Motherboard Mouse Mouse Keyboard Keyboard COM (Legacy Serial) COM (Legacy Serial) USB USB LPT (Legacy Parallel) LPT (Legacy Parallel) FireWire – less common FireWire – less common

22 Drive Connectors on Motherboard Floppy Floppy 34-pin 34-pin Ribbon cable Ribbon cable IDE IDE 40-pin 40-pin Ribbon cable Ribbon cable New type just introduced: Serial IDE New type just introduced: Serial IDE

23 Troubleshooting Motherboards Dead Motherboard: Dead Motherboard: Correct CPU installed? Correct CPU installed? Correct type of RAM? Correct type of RAM? Power supply working? Power supply working? Video card installed? Video card installed? Power turned on? Power turned on?

24 Troubleshooting Motherboards Beeping Beeping RAM, CPU, video card: RAM, CPU, video card: Installed correctly? Installed correctly? Appropriate for this motherboard? Appropriate for this motherboard? Malfunctioning? Malfunctioning? Look up beep code in BIOS reference Look up beep code in BIOS reference

25 Troubleshooting Motherboards Dead Battery Dead Battery Real-time clock is losing time Real-time clock is losing time PC forgets its configuration settings when powered off PC forgets its configuration settings when powered off

26 Troubleshooting Motherboards Dead built-in components Dead built-in components Malfunctioning expansion slots Malfunctioning expansion slots Bad jumper settings Bad jumper settings Bent pins Bent pins Leaky battery Leaky battery Broken connection (poor soldering) Broken connection (poor soldering) Short circuiting Short circuiting


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