Presentation on theme: "Human Geography: China and Japan. China Early History Oldest continuous civilizations: geographic isolation allowed them develop Dynasty: a series of."— Presentation transcript:
Early History Oldest continuous civilizations: geographic isolation allowed them develop Dynasty: a series of rulers from the same family Lasted until 1911 Shi Huangdi of the Qin Dynasty…built most of the Great Wall and had an elaborate tomb with thousands of clay soldiers!
The Great Wall of China More than 4,000 miles along China’s northern border with Mongolia, whom many conflicts occurred with.
China: Revolution and Change 19 th century: Controlled by Britain, France, Germany, Russia, and Japan (sphere of influence) Boxer Rebellion 1900: Chinese killed Europeans and Christians in China (boxer: fists of righteous unity)
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong Mid 20 th Century, fighting occurs between: Chiang Kai-shek, the Leader of the Nationalists (can have private ownership) & Mao Zedong: Leader of the Communists (no private ownership) China becomes Communist! The People’s Republic of China I win! I’m heading to Taiwan.
Fireworks, noodles, paper, gunpowder, compass, porcelain, silk, and printing all were invented by the Chinese
Rural and Industrial Economies Largely agricultural: 60% work on farms What can explain why most of the people list in the east and not the west? Manufacturing: abundant resources (coal, iron ore, oil) Shanghai: One of the world’s great industrial centers Textiles, steel, consumer goods
Confucius (551-479 BCE) Considered China’s greatest philosopher Men should be kind, tolerant, and love their elders and ancestors (filial piety) Golden rule: “Do not do to others what you would not have others do to you.” Confucianism – code of behavior Education, good manners, right morals, respect for others, love of tradition, obedience to one’s parents
“Be not ashamed of mistakes and thus make them crimes.” “Before you embark on a journey of revenge, dig two graves.” “Everything has its beauty but not everyone sees it.” “Forget injuries, never forget kindnesses.” “He who will not economize will have to agonize.” “I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.” “Ignorance is the night of the mind, but a night without moon and star.”
Taoism Philosophy based on the teachings of Lao-Tzu of China Believes in everything being in harmony with nature Government should leave people alone
TAOISM Taoism is not a religion. Taoism is a philosophy, a way of looking at life and a way of thinking about things. Taoists believe if you look at life and think about things in the right way, you'll be much happier. Taoists are firm believers in joy and laughter “There is more to knowing than just being correct.” “A clever mind is not a heart.” Taoists believe it's very important to understand the way Things Are. This does not mean that there are not things we need to change about ourselves, but it's important to recognize and trust our own inner nature, and discover who we are
Buddhism Spread from India Many branches and different interpretations Influences from Confucianism and Taoism Buddhism in Tibet Tibet was an independent religious state led by the Dalai Lama The area was taken over by communist China and the Dalai Lama is currently in exile in India from there he is traveling the world to help free Tibet
Population – China Over 1.6 billion people Shanghai = 13.5 million Beijing = 11.2 million (host of the 2008 summer Olympics) Pollution consequences Production needs to keep up with population
Because of concerns about a rapidly expanding population, china in 1979 adopted a policy of one child per family. In addition, the country has age restrictions for marriage. A man must be 22 and a woman 20 before they can marry. Those policies have reduced China’s birthrate dramatically. However, the government policy of one child per family has run into opposition. Rural families, in particular, feel the need for more than one child to help work on their farms. Because of these problems, the government has relaxed the one-child policy.
Ancient Japan Not unified: hundreds of clans ruling separate territories Professional soldiers called samurai served the interest of landowners and clan chiefs 1192 Emperor creates military ruler = SHOGUN Supported by Samurai Fought off Mongol invasion 1868 last shogun resigns, all power to the emperor
Economic Powerhouse 2 nd to the United States in size of its economy Manufacturing and trade at the heart of economy Imports most of its natural resources 75% of people live in cities How does contribute to their economy?
Population of Japan Population = about 127 million Very urbanized (3/4 of the people live in cities) Tokyo – 13.6 million people Cities are overcrowded and polluted
Japan’s Recent Population Problems Japan’s population could plummet by more than 61 percent to just under 50 million in the next century. ○ More than 40% of their population will be above the age of 65 by then. Why is this happening? Japan is also not very culturally diverse
Japanese Culture: Modern & Traditional Shintoism – traditional Japanese religion (ancestor & nature worship) Kabuki Theater: Dress in traditional clothing and have dramatic plays
Japanese Architecture: Modern & Traditional Pagoda: Architectural style derived from Buddhist temples Capsule hotels in Japan provide tiny rooms for overnight guests
History of Colonialism Europeans colonized the area to use its vast resources to obtain wealth The French colonized Cambodia, Laos, & Vietnam; naming the area Indochina Japan takes over around WWII Some countries gained independence peacefully, Indonesia had to fight the Dutch for it
Vietnam Won independence from French in 1954 Split into North Vietnam: communist South Vietnam: republic N & S fought from 1957-1975 for control
Vietnam War – 1957- 1975 1965: the US stepped in to prevent a communist leader from taking over The US withdrew in 1973 and the communist leader took over in 1975 North and south were now one country (Vietnam)
Phan Thị Kim Phúc, is the child depicted in the Pulitzer Prize-winning photograph taken during the Vietnam War on June 8, 1972. The iconic photo taken in Trang Bang by AP photographer Nick Ut shows her at about nine years of age running naked on a road after being severely burned on her back by a South Vietnamese napalm attack.
Economics - Traditional Most of SE Asia depends on agriculture Agriculture rice (chief food crop) Forestry teak (expensive wood used in fancy & outdoor furniture)
Why a lack of Industry for so long? Reasons: Vietnam War destroyed factories & roads Fleeing of refugees = reduced work force Political turmoil Extreme weather tsunamis
Economics – Modern ASEAN = Association of Southeast Asian Nations Promotes economic growth and peace within the region
Econ. – Modern Continued Manufacturing and industry have grown rapidly since the 1960s Southeast Asia is now a major industrial center for clothing & electronic products
Effects of Industrialization Cities are growing, which causes people to move to the cities (in search of jobs) Push-Pull Factors PUSH FACTORS: PUSH FACTORS: drive rural people from their land Lost Resources, Scarcity of Land, Population Growth PULL FACTORS: PULL FACTORS: attract people to cities Industry and other benefits (education/gov. services) ***Due to the large numbers of immigrants, many cities are finding it difficult to deal with the growing populations.
MOVEMENT Many rapidly growing Southeast Asian cities are overcrowded. That is one of several factors creating slums, such as this one in Jakarta, Indonesia. Why would high rates of migration to cities cause overcrowding?
Jobs! Jobs! Jobs! 1 st Primary jobs: get materials from the earth 2 nd Secondary jobs: turn materials into a product 3 rd Tertiary jobs: sell product What sector do you think most Southeast Asian workers are working in? What about people in the U.S.? Why?
A Rich Mosaic of Culture Southeast Asia has absorbed many influences from other regions and used them to create their own culture Religious Diversity Buddhism is widespread in the region Philippines is mostly Catholic (as a result of Spanish rule), Indonesia and Brunei are mostly Muslim Hinduism and other traditional local beliefs are also practiced
Industrial Output of SE Asia Cartogram p. 733 1) What is a cartogram? 2) How do cartograms represent quantity? 3) Why might cartograms be a useful ancillary to conventional maps? 4) According to the cartogram, how much industrial output does Thailand have? 5) Which country or countries seem to have a small industrial output compared to their actual size? 6) Which country or countries seem to have a large industrial output compared to their actual size?