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The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger Chapter 2 Theories of Development  What Theories Do  Grand Theories  Newer.

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Presentation on theme: "The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger Chapter 2 Theories of Development  What Theories Do  Grand Theories  Newer."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger Chapter 2 Theories of Development  What Theories Do  Grand Theories  Newer Theories

2 Developmental Theory  a group of ideas, assumptions, generalizations that interpret and illuminate the thousands of observations made about human growth  provides a framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older.

3 What Theories Do  Theories produce a hypothesis.  Theories generate discoveries.  Theories offer practical guidance. … Theories are NOT facts.

4 Grand Theories Grand Theories of the Early 20 th Century:  Psychoanalytic Theory  Behavioral Theory  Cognitive Theory Newer Theories:  Sociocultural Theory  Universal Perspective: Humanism and Evolutionary Theory

5 Psychoanalytic Theory  A theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior.  Psychoanalytic theory originated with Sigmund Freud (1856– 1939)

6 Psychoanalytic Theory Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development App. AgeStage 0-18 monthsORAL STAGE: lips, tongue, gums are focus of pleasurable sensations 18ms. -3 yearsANAL STAGE: Anus is the focus of pleasurable sensations, toilet training most important 3-6 yearsPHALLIC STAGE: Phallus (penis) most important. Boys proud/Girls wonder what’s wrong 6-11 yearsLATENCY: not really stage. Period during which sexual needs quiet AdolescenceGENITAL STAGE: Genitals are the focus, young person seeks sexual satisfaction AdulthoodGenital stage last throughout adulthood

7 Psychoanalytic Theory Erik Erikson (1902–1994) Described eight developmental stages, each characterized by a challenging developmental crisis. His first five stages build on Freud’s theory; but he also described three adult stages.

8 Psychoanalytic Theory Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development App. AgeConflict Infancy 0-1 yearBasic Trust vs. Mistrust Early Childhood 1-3 yearsAutonomy vs. Shame Preschool 3-6 yearsInitiative vs. Guilt School Age 6-12 yearsIndustry vs. Inferiority Adolescence yearsIdentity vs. Confusion Young Adulthood yearsIntimacy vs. Isolation Middle Adulthood yearsGenerativity vs. Stagnation Maturity 65-deathIntegrity vs. Despair

9 Behaviorism  A theory of human development that studies observable behavior.  Also called “learning theory” as it describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned.  Conditioning - the processes by which responses become linked to particular stimuli and learning takes place. Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Social Learning

10 Behaviorism Classical conditioning - Ivan Pavlov ( ) (also called respondent conditioning), a process in which a person or animal learns to associate a neutral stimulus with a meaningful stimulus, gradually reacting to the neutral stimulus with the same response as to the meaningful one.

11 Behaviorism Operant Conditioning

12 Behaviorism Operant conditioning - B.F. Skinner (1904–1990) (also called instrumental conditioning) a learning process in which a particular action is followed either by something desired or by something unwanted. E

13 Behaviorism Social Learning Theory - Albert Bandura An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person’s behavior. Modeling- people learn by observing other people and then copying them. Self-Efficacy- how effective people think they are when it comes to changing themselves or altering their social context.

14 Cognitive Theory  Jean Piaget (1896–1980)  Thoughts and expectations profoundly affect action.  Focuses on changes in how people think over time.  Cognitive development occurs over four age-related periods  Constructivist Perspective of Learning

15 Cognitive Theory

16 Cognitive Equilibrium  A state of mental balance, no confusion  Interpret new ideas through past ideas  Easy equilibrium not always possible  If new experience is not understandable, cognitive disequilibrium can occur Assimilation Accommodation Cognitive Theory

17 Information Processing Not a single theory but a framework Inspired by how a computer works How people think before they respond How attention and thought affects mental function Relationship between one person’s thinking and another’s

18 Newer Theories Sociocultural Theory  Leo Vygotsky ( )  Development results from a person’s interaction with their social and cultural surroundings  Culture is integral to development  Apprenticeship in thinking: how cognition is “taught” by the older and more skilled

19 Sociocultural Theory Zone of proximal development  Made up of the skills, knowledge, and concepts that the learner is close to acquiring Learner needs help to master Learning must be individualized

20 The Universal Perspective Humanism  Abraham Maslow ( ), Hierarchy of Needs  Carl Rogers ( )  Stresses the potential of humans for good  All people have the same needs  Emphasize what people have in common

21 The Universal Perspective Evolutionary Theory  Based on Darwin’s ideas  Humans are more alike than different  Human development influenced by drives to survive and reproduce  Selective adaptation: process by which people adapt to their environment

22 Eclectic Perspective Eclectic perspective  The approach taken by most developmentalists  Aspects of each of the various theories of development are applied rather than adhering exclusively to one

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