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Development of Education Media and Technology in Education Ameir M. Makame.

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1 Development of Education Media and Technology in Education Ameir M. Makame

2 Technology use in education Educators nearly everywhere have long looked to the emerging media and technology of their time to improve the delivery of instruction in the classroom and to help them reach students (and teachers) in remote locations. In the early days of media and technology use, the focus was on the delivery of direct instruction (e.g. radio, interactive radio, instructional television). Instructional technologies widely used for this purpose in low-income countries include the use of programmed instruction, the distribution of lessons on audiotape, the use of duplicating and photocopy machines to prepare learning aids, and television broadcasts of lessons at times that coincide with the school teaching schedule.

3 Technology use in education… Newer technology-based instructional strategies, incorporating the Internet and the World Wide Web (www), are used more to expand communication and increase access to resources. These new technologies represent a significant change in the teacher’s role in the instructional process. Whereas earlier technologies provided teachers primarily with a tool for continuing to teach in the manner they were already teaching (though presumably more efficiently), technologies such as e-mail and Internet tend to push teachers toward fundamentally different ways of teaching.

4 Technology use in education… Depending on how they are used, these techniques shift more responsibility to the students to seek out information and interact with people at other locations. For most part, they tend to encourage more student-centered learning.

5 The path from Technology to Education All major developments in the transmission of images and in the development of computers, videotapes, CD- ROMs, interactive TV and the Internet took place in industrialised countries. Therefore, it should be no surprise that the first educational uses of these technologies also took place in the industrialised countries, and in particular in the United States (Moura Castro, 2004). Since these developments occurred in the US and Europe, these countries had mature systems of education, compared to Third World countries. Children in these countries had long had access to properly qualified teachers and these countries were already spending abundant amounts of money on high-cost education.

6 The path from Technology to Education… The first uses of both computers and TV tended to mimic teachers. The initial batch of tutorial software and the more widespread use of “drill and practice” programmes used machines to repeat what teachers did in conventional classrooms.they taught simple skills and concepts, such as spelling and multiplication tables. Educational TV used teachers infront of the camera, teaching classes just as they would in conventional classroom situations.

7 The path from Technology to Education… Soon computers were being put to more imaginative use. Ther turtle that moved around on the screen was seen as a means to teach programming algorithms. LOGO became a landmark in the use of computers to develop higher-order learning. Simulations and animation offer endless potential to make students understand theoretical principles. From graphic models of the solar system to a vaast range of chapters on physics, inference statistics, or the Electronic Workbench, a computer can explain scientific abstractions.

8 The path from Technology to Education… Word processors offer a new path to writing. Spell checkers have changed the rules in the art of spelling words. None of this was planned (Moura Castro, 2004). At first disdained by computer analysts, and against all expectations, word processing has become the number one use of computers in education.

9 The path from Technology to Education… As time went by and machines grew in performance, the use o computers has become increasingly sophisticated. Following the approach recently termed “constructivism”, computers are being proposed as tools to explore the world. This maybe via computers equipped with sensors as data-gathering devices, or via databases. Whatever the tool, students are urged to research, explore and express themselves in ways that are not as practical or powerful using more conventional means.

10 The path from Technology to Education… The emergence of Internet brought together another wave of innovation and enthusiasm in computer use. From early experiments in connecting schools to the Dhow Jones databases, to the cacophony of present day websites, the possibilities are mind- boggling. As the apostles for such uses increase, some are now becoming the teachers of those who come from less affluent countries and return to them after graduation (Moura Castro, 2004).

11 Online resources used within education system 1.The most common use is in direct instruction. Lessons developed in one location can be broadcast via radio or television or made available through e-mail or the World Wide Web for use by students (individually or in groups) in other locations. This is especially important in countries in which large segments of the teaching force are under-qualified for the grades they expected to teach.

12 Online resources used within education system… 2.Teachers can use online searches to find and access resource materials that are then used in the teachers’ own lesson preparation. For example, teachers might locate maps and fast sheets about countries being in social in social studies class. 3.Teachers can use the web to access curriculum and instructional guides for their own use. For example teachers may access instructions on how to lead a class in the dissection of a frog in biology.

13 Online resources used within education system… 4.Students can use the web to find and retrieve information they can use in their won class research projects. In some schools, allowing students to use school computers for independent study is used as a way to motivate and reward good students. 5.Some teachers use web-based chat rooms and online communications technology to connect two or more classrooms in different parts of the world. Students from different locations can ask and answer questions from those at the other locations.

14 Online resources used within education system… 6.Teachers can have their lessons broadcast to multiple classrooms simultaneously. This is already widely used in higher education as a means of offering courses in low- enrolment subject areas In secondary education this allows students in remote locations to have direct interaction with teachers at a central location.

15 Online resources used within education system… 7. Technology-based instruction is used in many countries as a means of delivering in-service teacher education. Teachers need not leave their teaching posts to participate in professional development activities.

16 Resistance to the Use of newer Technologies Limitations of infrastructure and finances effectively bar some countries from participating in this electronic revolution. In other countries, education and government leaders have legitimate concerns about the cost, the efficacy, and the feasibility of using communication technologies in their education systems. More specifically, developing countries face 4 main problems:

17 Resistance to the Use of newer Technologies… 1.Access is expensive the cost of internet access is still high for many developing countries. Internet connections available at the school or school cluster level will be a central problem. Meaningful use of the Internet in the instructional process will require new curriculum and new training for teachers.

18 Resistance to the Use of newer Technologies…. 2.Ensuring equity of access is difficult There are disparities among those who could obtain quality education would widen since the electronic communication serves the rich and influential. Ensuring that easy access to world information and to electronic instruction are widely available to students and all social and economic backgrounds will be a challenge for educational planners in the next decade (Chapman et al, 2004).

19 Resistance to the Use of newer Technologies… 3.Retraining teachers to use new technologies is complicated and costly. Most teachers in the developing world lack the technical skills, the content background, and the language capacity to effectively utilize the world wide web including in classroom instruction. Teachers often lack the pedagogical skills to know how to most effectively use the powerful information tool in their classroom.

20 Resistance to the Use of newer Technologies… 4.Inappropriate content poses a problem Some countries resist introducing widespread Internet access from a fear that it will have a negative impact on local culture or be used in ways that undermine national authority. A central concern is children’s access to pornography. Some government are also concerned about political (unacceptable ideological positions) and social content.

21 References 1.Chapman, D. and Lars O. Mahlck. (eds).(2004). Adapting Technology for School improvement. Paris: International Institute for Educational Planning. UNESCO.

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