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Stoichiometry Sherlock Holmes, in Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s A Study in Scarlet “In solving a problem of this sort, the grand thing is to be able to reason backward. This is a very useful accomplishment, and a very easy one, but people do not practice it much.”

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The Mole 1 dozen = 1 gross = 1 ream = 1 mole = 12 144 500 6.022 x 10 23 There are exactly 12 grams of carbon-12 in one mole of carbon-12.

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Avogadro’s Number 6.022 x 10 23 is called “Avogadro’s Number” in honor of the Italian chemist Amadeo Avogadro (1776-1855). Amadeo Avogadro I didn’t discover it. Its just named after me!

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Calculations with Moles: Converting moles to grams How many grams of lithium are in 3.50 moles of lithium? 3.50 mol Li = g Li 1 mol Li 6.94 g Li 45.1

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Calculations with Moles: Converting grams to moles How many moles of lithium are in 18.2 grams of lithium? 18.2 g Li = mol Li 6.94 g Li 1 mol Li 2.62

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Calculations with Moles: Using Avogadro’s Number How many atoms of lithium are in 3.50 moles of lithium? 3.50 mol Li = atoms Li 1 mol Li 6.022 x 10 23 atoms Li 2.11 x 10 24

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Calculations with Moles: Using Avogadro’s Number How many atoms of lithium are in 18.2 g of lithium? 18.2 g Li = atoms Li 1 mol Li6.022 x 10 23 atoms Li 1.58 x 10 24 6.94 g Li1 mol Li (18.2)(6.022 x 10 23 )/6.94

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Calculating Formula Mass Calculate the formula mass of magnesium carbonate, MgCO 3. 24.31 g + 12.01 g + 3(16.00 g) = 84.32 g

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Calculating Percentage Composition Calculate the percentage composition of magnesium carbonate, MgCO 3. From previous slide: 24.31 g + 12.01 g + 3(16.00 g) = 84.32 g 100.00

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Formulas molecular formula = (empirical formula) n [n = integer] molecular formula = C 6 H 6 = (CH) 6 empirical formula = CH Empirical formula: the lowest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound. Molecular formula: the true number of atoms of each element in the formula of a compound.

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Formulas (continued) Formulas for ionic compounds are ALWAYS empirical (lowest whole number ratio). Examples: NaClMgCl 2 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 K 2 CO 3

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Formulas (continued) Formulas for molecular compounds MIGHT be empirical (lowest whole number ratio). Molecular: H2OH2O C 6 H 12 O 6 C 12 H 22 O 11 Empirical: H2OH2O CH 2 O C 12 H 22 O 11

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Empirical Formula Determination 1.Base calculation on 100 grams of compound. 2.Determine moles of each element in 100 grams of compound. 3.Divide each value of moles by the smallest of the values. 4.Multiply each number by an integer to obtain all whole numbers.

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Empirical Formula Determination Adipic acid contains 49.32% C, 43.84% O, and 6.85% H by mass. What is the empirical formula of adipic acid?

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Empirical Formula Determination (part 2) Divide each value of moles by the smallest of the values. Carbon: Hydrogen: Oxygen:

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Empirical Formula Determination (part 3) Multiply each number by an integer to obtain all whole numbers. Carbon: 1.50 Hydrogen: 2.50 Oxygen: 1.00 x 2 352 Empirical formula: C3H5O2C3H5O2

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Finding the Molecular Formula The empirical formula for adipic acid is C 3 H 5 O 2. The molecular mass of adipic acid is 146 g/mol. What is the molecular formula of adipic acid? 1. Find the formula mass of C 3 H 5 O 2 3(12.01 g) + 5(1.01) + 2(16.00) = 73.08 g

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Finding the Molecular Formula The empirical formula for adipic acid is C 3 H 5 O 2. The molecular mass of adipic acid is 146 g/mol. What is the molecular formula of adipic acid? 3(12.01 g) + 5(1.01) + 2(16.00) = 73.08 g 2. Divide the molecular mass by the mass given by the emipirical formula.

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Finding the Molecular Formula The empirical formula for adipic acid is C 3 H 5 O 2. The molecular mass of adipic acid is 146 g/mol. What is the molecular formula of adipic acid? 3(12.01 g) + 5(1.01) + 2(16.00) = 73.08 g 3. Multiply the empirical formula by this number to get the molecular formula. (C 3 H 5 O 2 ) x 2 = C 6 H 10 O 4

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Review: Chemical Equations Chemical change involves a reorganization of the atoms in one or more substances. C 2 H 5 OH + 3O 2 2CO 2 + 3H 2 O reactantsproducts 1 mole of ethanol reacts with 3 moles of oxygen to produce 2 moles of carbon dioxide and 3 moles of water When the equation is balanced it has quantitative significance:

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Try #68 from Blue Book Or #69 from Purple Book

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Solving a Stoichiometry Problem 1.Balance the equation. 2.Convert masses to moles. 3.Determine which reactant is limiting. 4.Use moles of limiting reactant and mole ratios to find moles of desired product. 5.Convert from moles to grams.

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Working a Stoichiometry Problem 6.50 grams of aluminum reacts with an excess of oxygen. How many grams of aluminum oxide are formed. 1. Identify reactants and products and write the balanced equation. Al+O2O2 Al 2 O 3 b. What are the reactants? a. Every reaction needs a yield sign! c. What are the products? d. What are the balanced coefficients? 43 2

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Working a Stoichiometry Problem 6.50 grams of aluminum reacts with an excess of oxygen. How many grams of aluminum oxide are formed? 4 Al + 3 O 2 2Al 2 O 3 = 6.50 g Al ? g Al 2 O 3 1 mol Al 26.98 g Al 4 mol Al 2 mol Al 2 O 3 1 mol Al 2 O 3 101.96 g Al 2 O 3 6.50 x 2 x 101.96 ÷ 26.98 ÷ 4 =12.3 g Al 2 O 3

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Limiting Reactant The limiting reactant is the reactant The limiting reactant is the reactant that is consumed first, limiting the amounts of products formed. that is consumed first, limiting the amounts of products formed.

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Percent Mass, Empirical and Molecular Formulas. Calculating Formula (Molar) Mass Calculate the formula mass of magnesium carbonate, MgCO 3. 24.31 g +

Percent Mass, Empirical and Molecular Formulas. Calculating Formula (Molar) Mass Calculate the formula mass of magnesium carbonate, MgCO 3. 24.31 g +

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