2 23.4PolymerizationSnap beads are a favorite toy for toddlers. Chemical compounds called monomers and polymers resemble snap beads. Monomers are joined end-to-end to form long chains called polymers. You will learn about monomers and polymers.
3 Addition Polymers How does an addition polymer form? 23.4
4 23.4Addition PolymersA polymer is a large molecule formed by the covalent bonding of repeating smaller molecules.The smaller molecules that combine to form a polymer are called monomers.
5 23.4Addition PolymersAn addition polymer forms when unsaturated monomers react to form a polymer.
6 23.4Addition PolymersPolyethylene is used to make many household items, including plastic bottles, bags, and food containers.Polyethylene is used for many familiar household items, including plastic bottles, bags, and food containers.
7 23.4Addition PolymersPolypropylene, a stiffer polymer than polyethylene, is used to make plastic utensils and containers, and other items such as this whistle.Common polymers are used for various applications. Polypropylene is used in the manufacture of a variety of items, such as this whistle.
8 Polypropylene is prepared by the polymerization of propene. 23.4Addition PolymersPolypropylene is prepared by the polymerization of propene.
9 23.4Addition PolymersPolystyrene foam is a poor heat conductor, useful for insulating homes and for molded items such as coffee cups and picnic coolers.
10 23.4Addition PolymersPolyvinyl chloride (PVC) is used for pipes in plumbing. It is also produced in sheets, sometimes with a fabric backing, for use as a tough plastic upholstery covering.Common polymers are used for various applications. Polyvinyl chloride is used for pipes in plumbing.
11 23.4Addition PolymersPolyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a halocarbon polymer. Vinyl chloride is the monomer of polyvinyl chloride.
12 23.4Addition PolymersPolytetrafluoroethene (Teflon™or PTFE) is the product of the polymerization of tetrafluoroethene monomers.
13 23.4Addition PolymersPTFE is very resistant to heat and chemical corrosion. It is used to coat cookware and to insulate wires, cables, motors, and generators.PTFE is used to coat cookware and to insulate wires, cables, motors, and generators. It also is suspended in motor oils as a friction-reducing agent.
14 23.4Addition PolymersRubber is harvested from tropical plants and is used in a variety of products.Rubber is harvested from tropical plants and is used in a variety of products. Interpreting Photographs What is the source of natural polyisoprene?
15 23.4Addition PolymersPolyisoprene, harvested from tropical plants such as a rubber tree, is the polymer that constitutes rubber.
16 Condensation Polymers 23.4Condensation PolymersCondensation PolymersHow are condensation polymers formed?
17 Condensation Polymers 23.4Condensation PolymersCondensation polymers are formed by the head-to-tail joining of monomer units.
18 Condensation Polymers 23.4Condensation PolymersPolyesters are made by linking dicarboxylic acids and dihydroxy alcohols. The polyester polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is formed from terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol.
19 Condensation Polymers 23.4Condensation PolymersWoven Dacron (PET fibers) tubing can be used to replace major blood vessels.Woven Dacron (PET fibers) tubing can be used to replace major blood vessels. a) The blood vessel replacement before surgery. b) The blood vessel after surgery. Applying Concepts What properties of Dacron make it useful for this purpose?
20 Condensation Polymers 23.4Condensation PolymersPolyamides are polymers in which the carboxylic acid and amine monomer units are linked by amide bonds.
21 Condensation Polymers 23.4Condensation PolymersThe representative polymer unit of nylon is derived from 6-aminohexanoic acid, a compound that contains both carboxyl and amino functional groups.Many types of nylon are polyamides. a) Flame-resistant clothing is made of Nomex™, a polyamide with aromatic rings. b) Nylon fishing lines are lightweight, yet very strong.
22 Condensation Polymers 23.4Condensation PolymersNylon fibers are used for carpeting, tire cord, fishing lines, sheer hosiery, and textiles.Many types of nylon are polyamides. Nylon fishing lines are lightweight, yet very strong.
23 Condensation Polymers 23.4Condensation PolymersKevlar™is a polyamide made from terephthalic acid and p-phenylenediamine.Bulletproof vests are made of Kevlar.
24 Condensation Polymers 23.4Condensation PolymersKevlar is used extensively where strength and flame resistance are needed. Bulletproof vests are made of Kevlar.Bulletproof vests are made of Kevlar.
26 23.4 Section Quiz.1. A reactant used to form addition polymers mustbe saturated.be unsaturated.be an alkane.contain only single C-C bonds.
27 23.4 Section Quiz.2. The physical properties of addition polymers are controlled by adjusting thelength of the carbon chain.temperature of the reaction.catalyst used in the reaction.number of substituents.
28 23.4 Section Quiz.3. When water is produced as a polymer forms, the polymer is most likelya condensation polymer.an addition polymer.polyethylene.a dicarboxylic acid.
29 Concept Map 23 Create your Concept Map using the computer.