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Energy. Laws of Thermodynamics Flow of Energy in Living Things –Oxidation & Reduction Free Energy: Endergonic & Exergonic Rxs. Activation Energy Enzymes.

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Presentation on theme: "Energy. Laws of Thermodynamics Flow of Energy in Living Things –Oxidation & Reduction Free Energy: Endergonic & Exergonic Rxs. Activation Energy Enzymes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Energy

2 Laws of Thermodynamics Flow of Energy in Living Things –Oxidation & Reduction Free Energy: Endergonic & Exergonic Rxs. Activation Energy Enzymes –Forms –Activity ATP Energy - Outline

3 Laws of Thermodynamics First Law of Thermodynamics Energy cannot be created or destroyed Energy can change form. Second Law of Thermodynamics Disorder (entropy) is increasing. Energy transformations proceed  spontaneously  more ordered to a less ordered  less stable to more stable  energy dissipates as heat. Heat  random motion of molecules. Energy - the capacity to do work

4 Flow of Energy in Living Things Potential Energy Kinetic Energy

5 Flow of Energy in Living Things Oxidation - Reduction Oxidation atom/molecule loses an electron. Reduction atom or molecule gains an electron. Redox reactions - electron lost must be gained

6 Fig. 8.4 (TEArt) Gain of electron  reduction Low energy e–e– AB High energy Loss of electron (oxidation) A oo B + – A* B* Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Oxidation - Reduction Gain of energy  reduction

7 Fig (TEArt) N + O CH 2 H H H PO–O– O OH HH O C O NH 2 NMP reactive group AMP group O P O CH 2 H HH H OH O O–O– O H H NH 2 N N N N Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Structure

8 8 NAD + & NADH NAD = Coenzyme = Electron Carrier Molecule NAD +  oxidized  low energy NADH  reduced  high energy

9 Fig. 8.6a (TEArt) Reactant Product Endergonic Reactions Energy must be supplied. Energy supplied Energy released Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

10 Fig. 8.6b (TEArt) Reactant Product Exergonic Reactions Energy released Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Energy released

11 Fig. 8.7 (TEArt) Reactant Product Catalyzed Uncatalyzed Product Reactant Activation energy Energy supplied Energy released Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Activation Energy

12 Fig. 8.8 (TEArt) Active site Substrate Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Enzyme Structure and Function

13 Fig. 8.9 (TEArt) Substrate = sucrose 1 Enzyme- substrate complex 2 Enzyme Stresses Substrate 3 Products released 4 Bond Enzyme Active site H2OH2O GlucoseFructose Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Enzyme Structure and Function

14 What do enzymes do? Bring molecules together Orients molecules in correct position Strains (bends) molecules –Lowering of Activation Energy Releases products once formed

15 Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity pH Temperature

16 Fig. 8.11a (TEArt) 30 Human Enzyme Hotsprings prokaryote Temperature of reaction (°C) Rate of reaction Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Temperature Effect on Enzyme Activity

17 Fig. 8.11b (TEArt) Pepsin pH of reaction Trypsin Rate of reaction Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. pH Effect on Enzyme Activity

18 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings ATP ADP + P Energy for endergonic reactions Energy from exergonic reactions Phosphorylation Strongly Endergonic Hydrolysis Strongly Exergonic The ATP cycle

19 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings ATP Chemical work Mechanical work Transport work P P P P P P Molecule formedProtein moved Solute transported Product Reactants Motor protein Membrane protein Solute + How ATP powers cellular work ADP + P

20 Fig. 9.2 (TEArt) Triphosphate group Sugar Adenine NH 2 OPCH 2 O OP O OP O OH O N N N N O-O- O O-O- O-O- Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. ATP Structure

21 Energy Metabolism How is ATP made? 1.ADP + Phosphate  ATP 2.Mechanisms of ATP synthesis  Chemiosmosis  Substrate Level Phosphorylation

22 Fig. 9.3 (TEArt) H+H+ ATP ADP + P i Catalytic head Intermembrane space Mitochondrial matrix Rod Rotor H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. ATP synthesis: Chemiosmosis

23 P PEP Enzyme ADP Adenosine P P P ATP P P Adenosine Pyruvate Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. ATP Synthesis Substrate-Level Phosphorylation

24 END


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